HISTORY 112Neringa Kardelyte
Professor C. Reiter
North won the Civil War. Throughout the American Civil War, The North proved to be victorious to The South. The Union had a power and wealth, better economy and technology. There were many key factories: the money, the resources, the commanders, the manpower, the skill and determination and the most important the advanced weapons. Civil War was considered the first modern War in the World, because of new advanced weapons- rifled muskets, that cold reach 300 yards. Although, both sides had access to these weapons, North had the larger quantity. Union solders, were free people and some of Confederate solders were slaves, so the did not really care to fight. What were they defeating: slavery?
The period after The Civil War was a very difficult time in The United States history. This time was known as The Reconstruction period, it was very controvertible. There were many issues that had to be considered such as what to do with the freed blacks in the South, and how states would be readmitted to the Union. This era saw the rise and fall of the radical Republicans, the government was going through a lot of changes, Southerners had to go through major changes not just in governmental system, they had to change their way of life. Southern way of life was destroyed, slavery was abolished, and residents of the South needed help to rebuild the economy.

After the end of Civil War in1865, there was no definite plan for reconstructing the Union. This was a serious matter. In 1863 president Lincoln proposed his ten percent plan, its policy would allow seceding states return to the Union if 10% of their prewar voters took an oath of loyalty to the Union and abolished slavery. The plan did not force states to give equal rights to blacks. Ten percent plan was a good idea, but radical republicans felt, that it is not enough. They wanted equal rights for former slaves and a power of planter class destroyed. Congress formulated a stricter plan of Reconstruction, it proposed that Confederate states would be temporarily ruled by the military governor required half the white adult males to take an oath, and restricted political power to the hard core Unionists in each state. Lincoln vetoed the plan, but his own plan could not succeed without assistance of Congress either. Lincoln finally appeared ready to make concessions to the Radicals. At his final meeting, he approved placing the defeated South temporarily under military rule. But only a few days later Lincoln was assassinated and Lincolns final Reconstruction plan will never be known.

In May of 1865 a new president A. Johnson unveiled his Reconstruction plan. Johnson gave pardons and restored property rights to former landowners if they pledged loyalty to the Union and the Constitution. Johnsons nothing to say about black people rights after the war. 1865 the southern states revised the slave codes into what became known as the black codes. This practically stripped blacks of equal rights and justice.

In 1867 Radical Reconstruction began. Under this plan the South was divided into five districts (excluding Tennessee). General headed each of the districts. The main goal of the leaders of the state was to increase voter registration of blacks, and to see that white c confederates did not get back in to the office.
During this time many things were done to free blacks in the South. The 13th amendment prohibited slavery in 1865. The Freedmens Bureau was created to assist black people with things such as education and housing. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 defined what civil rights were entitled to all citizens. The 14th amendment ratified in 1868 prohibited states from violating the rights of the citizens. 15th amendment in 1870 gave freedmen a right to vote.
Black people still had no choice but to work for white landowners, except for wages, which were wery low. Whites wanted to keep the old system of labor and physical punishment. African Americans refused to work under such conditions. Convinced that working at your own pace was a part of the freedom, they did not work as hard and as long. Work output declined about 35% in freedom (because of shorter hours and women and children releasing from the fields.). Black men desire their own land and did not wanted to work for wages. These reasons led to sharecropping. Under this arrangement African Americans farmed separate plots of land and then at the end of the year divided a crop on the equal basis, with the white landowner. Sharecropping gave black people more freedom and the feeling of being the owner of the land. Although it was better than working for wages, it was still an exploitative system in which black families often ended up in perpetual debt.

During President Grants second term Congress passed Civil Rights Act of 1875. The last major peace of Reconstruction Legislation. This law prohibited discrimination in the public places. At the same time Congress rejected a ban on segregation in public schools. Even though, the Civil Rights Act was passed the Federal government made very little attempt to enforce a law and most southern states ignored it.

Many northerners started disliking Reconstruction. They were tired of the corruption of Southern government and acts of violence between races. They had very little faith in African Americans. Northerners though that it is time to leave South alone. When came the Panic of 1873, the great depression time, people started loosing their jobs and savings. The popularity of the Republicans declined. In1874 Republicans lost 77 seats in Congress and along with them the House of Representatives, for the first time since 1861. After elections turned in to violent acts in 1877 Republicans and Democrats reached an important understanding-The Compromise of 1877. Republicans agreed to withdraw federal troops from the South and do not oppose the new Democratic state governments. Southern Democrats dropped their opposition to new election and pledged to respect African Americans rights.
By 1877th the entire South was in the hands of the Redemers (Democrats) as they called themselves. Reconstruction and republican rule came to the end. During 1880s Redemer governments moved to formalize a new system of segregation or racial separation. The redeemers convinced northerners that Redemer rule would not men political disfranchisement of the freed-people. But they could not succeed, because 14th amendment was in a way. In1883, however, the Supreme Court ruled that hotels and railroads are not private institutions, because private individuals owned them. Soon Jim Crow statutes separated the races in prisons, parks, hotels, restaurants, hospitals and other public places, except streets and stores. 1896, the Court ruled that the policy of segregation is legal and right. Plessy v. Ferguson upheld a Louisiana law requiring segregated railroad facilities. The Court claimed that segregation did not constitute discrimination, as long, as accommodations for both races were equal. Separate, but equal became embedded in the fabric of American law and stayed effective for more than half century. Black people, who crossed the color line risked violence, beating, lynching.

Birth of freedom was partially realized. Country was united and slavery was banished, thats what Lincolns goal was. On the other hand, the acts of the government in late 1870s and beyond shows that the freedom and equality was ignored and denied to black people. Those acts were totally against new birth of the freedom .

Booker T. Washington would probably think, that the Lincolns vision came true and now people of his race just have to be patien and wits will come to understanding. W.E.B. DuBois criticizes white supremacy and demand rights to his people. He understands that if you believe something you need to be heard and stand up for your rights. I dont think, that DuBois thought, that new birth of freedom was realized in its full meaning.