Why Make Divorce Easy

This article, by Maggie Gallagher, a scholar at the Institute for American Values, is in response to an unsigned editorial in the New York Times called “The Divorce Debate.” Gallagher opposes the views of the editorial and tries to answer the question: “What, if anything, can we do about the fact that at least half of our marriages fail?”
I was very turned-off by this article. First, it starts off with what the author thinks should be a shared assumption; the assumption stated that divorce is harmful for children. Not everyone believes that. She goes on by asking, “What……can we do?” Gallagher continues with her article by putting down other states because of their divorce stipulations. She says that they are not working. Yes, she did back that statement up with information from Judith Wallerstein’s book, Second Chance, and statistics from the Journal of Marriage and Family, but they were buried between the many instances in which she shared the views of her opposition.
The way she recognized the reasoning behind the “speedy spouse disposal” or “delayed backlash” was a nice touch. Unfortunately, Gallagher was so involved with trying to show the other side of things, she forgot to give the reasoning behind her own ideas. Through the entire article, she used negative words or phrases to express her feelings on divorce; they include: harmful, delayed backlash, speedy spouse removal, eliminating, marital wrongdoing, dissolve a marriage, bitter conflict, unhappy marriages, bleak times, punishments, messy and irrelevant, and torment. However, she never once suggested a solution for the problem of divorce. How can one argue with the ideas of others, if that person has no argument of their own?
After reading this article, I am pretty confident that the author has not personally been through a divorce of her own. This alone, could cause me to question her. I feel that a more personal article involving some of her own experiences would have been more convincing. I know that she was writing with a logical approach, but I believe an emotional one would have been better. Divorce is a topic that touches every person in so many different ways. If this article would have reached to the heart, it would have been more persuasive.

Though I am unhappy with the way the topic was approached, I am sure that the essay was not quickly written. Their was a lot of research involved in this article. Gallagher explained how different states came up with different solutions for divorce. She discussed the no-fault divorce and the waiting period before a divorce. Her statistic was a great bonus.

Divorce is certainly a great topic for debate as we head into the new millennium. There are many assumptions made about divorce, both shared and unshared. Some people believe that divorce is always a bad thing, no matter what the situation. Others
believe it’s a matter of what is best for the children (if there are any). Gallagher challenges the assumption that “no-fault will…….remake divorce into a kinder, gentler institution.
I believe that divorce is not necessarily the issue. The real question is, “How do we make marriages work?”

The Parthenon

The Parthenon
The Parthenon in Athens is perhaps one of the greatest architectural achievements by the Athenians. After being repeatedly demolished, the Parthenon stood as a “symbol of Greek independence, culture, and pride”(111 Thames & Hudson). In 447 BC. Pericles promoted building the Parthenon on the remains of an earlier temple on the Acropolis. The proposal of the Parthenon pleased the Athenians because “it served as much as a celebration of Athens and her achievements as it did as a centre to worship the goddess Athena”(111 Thames & Hudson). The new temple to Athena was “sacked by the Persians”(187 Abrams), so Kimon of Athens hired Callicrates to again begin rebuilding the temple to Athena. But, Pericles temporarily halted construction to commission another architect, Ictinos. So, together Callicrates and Ictinos “made many subtle adjustments in the lines of the structure and the placement of columns to refine the design and possibly to counteract the effects of various optical illusions that would otherwise seem to distort its (The Parthenon) appearance when it was viewed from a distance”(188 Abrams). This is why the Parthenon is so achtecturaly amazing. Besides its shear size, the materials used were very heavy and difficult to work with, yet the Parthenon interior cella and exterior and astoundingly flawless. With the exception of the timber roof supports, the entire Parthenon was built from marble “from the quarries of Mt. Pentelicon”(112 Thames & Hudson). After such struggles, it is not hard to imagine why the Parthenon was so important to the Athenians.

Arts Essays

Instant global radio, or Web radio, is the latest

manifestation of the Internets multimedia successor, the World Wide Web. Improved technology and content are turning Web radio into a mass medium. (Hickman 30) The Web radio concept is mainly underlined by the concept of Webcasting, or broadcasting station content over the Internet. Online users who visit the Web pages of Webcasting stations can find archived and live audio covering news, business, sports, and many different types of music. (Thomas 38) Although the most prominent reason for the increase in Web radio activity is advancement in related technology, there are multiple other reasons.

The key has been the development of software that allows a digital recording stored on a computer to be transmitted over the Internet and played instantly and continuously as it is received by the listeners computer. (Your Very Own 516) This technique is known as streaming, and was pioneered by RealNetworks. In the streaming process, the digitized clips are sent over the Internet as a stream of compressed data packets. (OMalley 64) Free audio-player software that works with Web browsers then decompresses and assembles these packets at the users computer and automatically plays them back as they are received.Streaming systems typically use a buffering system that stores an extra few seconds worth of data to prevent Internet “hiccups” from disrupting the steady flow of audio not unlike the shock-protection systems on portable compact disc players. (OMalley 64)As reported in 1995, listening to broadcasts on your computer is akin to dialing in a tinny transistor radio on the fringes of reception area even with hotshot multimedia speakers. (Silverthorne A1) Advancements have made it so Web-based audio now offers near-CD quality, even over a modem of average speed. (Hickman 30) The broadcast quality depends largely on the amount of traffic on the Internet. (Your Very Own 516) Sites will have varying degrees of quality, and the only way to ensure pure transmission is a fast connection from a fast site.

On September 5, 1995, the first broadcast of a Major League Baseball game was made over the Internet on ESPNs Web site. The next week, ABC Radio Net became the first organization to provide live Internet newscasts, with coverage of the O.J. Simpson trial. (Silverthorne A1) These early firsts by big-name network stations sparked the initial interest in Web radio, and the networks have been the biggest contributors towards the widening spectrum of quality content, as well as setting professional standards for content. In Spring of 1998, ABC Radio Network signed a deal with Real Networks to broadcast all 27 of ABCs radio stations on the Web. (Hickman 30) Despite network advancement, the sheer number of Internet-only Webcasters has helped to ensure better content, wider variety, and more Web radio usage. (Thomas 39) Where before there were difficulties with waveband congestion, access to unlimited space for Webcasters has become available through the Internet to virtually anyone, and positions even small alternative stations with potential to thrive alongside mainstream powerhouses. (Internet Radio 1)
The biggest fans of Web radio include people who have moved away from an area and like to tune in an Internet site to check the news or sports from their previous home town. Web radio also is popular with people who have exotic musical tastes and want to sample sounds that arent available from traditional broadcasters in their area. In addition, some people like to listen to commentary, or comedy programs playing in the background as they surf other sites. (Thomas 41)
Web radio, unlike the old sort, is interactive. Screens can supplement radio sound with song titles, liner notes and banner advertisements. Listeners can chat to each other, rate songs or click on a banner ad to buy a disc of the music theyve just heard all while listening to the radio. (Internet Radio 1) Many music Webcasters get payment for generating these types of music sales. Audio ads as normally run by traditional commercial stations can take up ten to fifteen minutes per hour. Audio ads on the Web usually take up a mere three minutes. This lost advertising is made up in the visual portion of the Website, and the broadcast itself suffers from little ads, leaving more room for programming. Despite the low costs and efficient advertising techniques, Web stations are still having to struggle to make money. (Internet Radio 1)
Other problems surround Web radio. Webcasting stations now may face copyright difficulties. Music licensing is a complicated issue because composers, artists, record companies, and music publishers all have different rights. (Thomas 41) Many questions surrounding Web user rights are not clear either. Because of this uncertainty, it is difficult to tell if Web users can legally save audio files and play them back later, or if news from wire services such as Reuters and the Associated Press can be rebroadcast.

Web radio cannot survive in its present form. (Your Very Own 1) For true success in the future both the technology and the financial footings of Web radio will have to become more sound. Until then, users will experience the diversity and imagination of the programming, as well as the frustration of downloading it.

Works Cited
Bremser, Wayne. “Pump up the volume.” Computer Life. January 1998. v4:n1. p90(7)
Crawford, Walt. “New Niches for New Media.” Online. 17 July 1998. v22:n4. p36(1).

Hickman, Angela. “Radio Fever.” PC Magazine. 30 June 1998. v17:n12. p30(1).

“Internet Radio: How well is Net Radio fulfilling its early promise?.” The Economist.
13 February 1999. v350:n8106. NA(1).

OMalley, Chris. “The new Internet: audio, video, and animating technologies are
making the once-static Web look more and more like interactive TV.” Popular
Science. September, 1997. v25:n3. p60(7).

Silverthorne, Sean. “Its Radio Internet.” PC Week. 18 September 1995. v12:n37 pA1(2)
Pack, Thomas. “Radio-activity on the Web.” Database. December 1996. v19:n6. p38(7).

“Your Very Own Web Radio.” The Economist. 15 February 1997. v342:n8004. p516(1).


Nathaniel is a magician’s apprentice. All apprentices live in their masters’ homes and their masters teach them magic, how to summon demons, and provide schooling for their apprentices. The also pick a name for them. The name is so that a magician or demon doesn’t find out what a person’s birth name because knowing someone’s birth name is a source of power to an enemy.

Now to the story. The story starts when Nathaniel is selected to be an apprentice to Mr. Arthur Underwood. He trains Nathaniel, only he doesn’t realize that Nathaniel is brighter than he looks. When Nathaniel is ten, he finishes all the books that his master said would keep him until he was twelve. At the age of ten, Nathaniel meets the villain of the story, Simon Lovelace. His master takes the liberty of showing him off to the other magicians. Simon questions Nathaniel’s smarts, and proves that Nathaniel is smart. Nathaniel answers all the questions correctly, but that ticks Simon off. Then, Simon puts a spell on Nathaniel, and embarrasses himself and his master. Since then, Nathaniel has been focused on revenge.
When he turns twelve, he summons a demon called Bartimaeus. Nathaniel charges him to steal the Amulet of Samarkand. Little does Nathaniel know that Simon was planning to use it to overthrow Mr. Rupert Devereaux, the Prime Minister, and the rest of the government. One day, Nathaniel charged Bartimaeus to spy on his master in the study, but Nathaniel is called down to the study to talk to his master, exactly where Bartimaeus is. Mrs. Underwood uses “Nathaniel” because that’s his name, but it’s also his birth name. Bartimaeus hears it and thinks it’s his second name, but in the study, Mr. Underwood schedules a day for his official Naming. Bartimaeus is thrilled to hear this because whatever punishment Nathaniel uses, he can just direct it back at Nathaniel. Nathaniel threatens with a spell that confides Bartimaeus in a tin and Bartimaeus eventually backs down.

A couple of days after Nathaniel was Named, Mr. Underwood, family, Named apprentices, and other ministers are invited to Parliament for a gathering. Now Nathaniel is officially name John Mandrake. At the gathering, an attack is carried out by a group of people that call themselves the Resistance. The Head of Internal Affairs, Mr. Underwood, is really upset about this attack because he is supposed to be in charge of the finding and stopping the Resistance. Nathaniel is upset, but has better things to do.

Nathaniel makes Bartimaeus to spy on Lovelace. Bartimaeus runs into a messenger imp and reads a letter addressed to Sholto Pinn. Bartimaeus goes to the shop owed by Sholto Pinn and tries to get more information on the Amulet, but gets caught and is taken to the Tower of London. There he is questioned and put in a prison specially designed for demons. Bartimaeus escapes with the help of Farqual and Jabor, Lovelace’s servants. Bartimaeus loses the servants and goes back to Nathaniel, only to find that Nathaniel has gotten into real trouble with his master. Nathaniel got caught spying and his master was mad, furious more like it, and gets interrupted when Simon shows up at his door. Simon demands to know where Mr. Underwood hid the Amulet, but Underwood doesn’t know what Simon is talking about. Simon keeps asking whether he can see Underwood’s study. Finally Underwood gives in.
During all this, Bartimaeus helps Nathaniel to escape. Despite the djinni’s warning, Nathaniel goes down to the study and confesses. Simon sends one of his servants to kill everybody in the house and burn it down. Nathaniel gets away, only with difficulty. Thus ends Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Underwood.
Nathaniel goes into hiding and begins to plan out his revenge. Bartimaeus helps him by what he found out about Simon and Lovelace. Nathaniel asks Bartimaeus to go and scout a way to get to the conference that Simon is holding outside of London.

Getting bored, Nathaniel goes out and explores the streets and meets a paper boy called Stanley. Carrying his scrying glass, the boy and his friend, Fred, steal it and take it to a girl named Kitty. Nathaniel figured out that he just had an encounter with three of the members of the Resistance.

Bartimaeus comes back and is escorts Nathaniel to the conference building where they sneak in and find their way to the conference room.

Tex Richard

Tex Rickard: the story of his life. The man who was known as Tex Rickard, was born on Jan 2, 1870 with the byname of George Lewis Rickard. He led a life of different jobs, I guess you could say he was a jack of all trades. His life, or the part of it that dealt with the gold rush, was what I would say as, short lived. After raising cattle in Texas, and ruling a little town as the town marshal he decided to move on to something different. He moved to a small city in Nevada called Goldfield. Goldfield was a boom town, which came about with the help of gold, and the fact the Rickard set up a casino.Now Tex didn’t make his money by mining for gold in California or in Nevada, but instead he was a professional gambler, and fight promoter. It is his final profession that he decided to stick with, and to say the least, he was most prosperous in this final job.As a fight promoter his life was very active. To publicize the community he decided to promote the world lightweight title fight between Joe Gans and Oscar Nelson. The fight was a long one, not only was it more then the normal 12 rounds, but it was nearly 4 times the normal, being 42 rounds in length. This would be the start of something big for Rickard. In 1920 he gained control of Madison Square Garden, and in his new arena he would stage the first million dollar fight, this would be the first of five million dollar crowds. Rickards achievements didn’t just come to him by luck. He made boxing a sport for all races and both the sexes. He appealed to the racism in people by posing a black against a white.He also aroused the patriots in the country by fighting a draft dodger and a war hero, along with this he set a American against a foreigner.He was the first promoter to understand the people, and who was able to control large crowds. All in all, he was a fighter, gambler, miner (in the Yukon), and a promoter, and was prosperous in all. He helped to change the face of the west by controlling where the people went, and helped California to grow, making him a very important man in the history of California and the United States.


As Supreme Expeditionary Forces Commander, General Dwight D. Eisenhower had the top military men of Great Britain and the United States under his command. These men would help him play out the great plans for the long awaited invasion. Their orders from the Combined Chiefs of Staff were very simple; they were to land on the coast of France and destroy the German armies.
The Nazis General Field Marshal Erwin Rommel took many different measures to prepare for the attacks by the Allies. He was the only General under Hitler’s command that believed Normandy not Pas Del Calais would be the invading point (Skipper 42). His troops worked feverishly to strengthen defenses. The entire coastline was littered with land mines. Their beaches had deadly obstacles and their weapons and bases were camouflaged. They felt that on shore they were invincible.
By early 1944 almost one million Allied soldiers arrived in the United Kingdom. That brought their total there to almost three million. The Allied airforce strength had grown from a few thousand planes to more than 15,000 planes. The 5,000 bombers were ready to drop over 100,000 bombs. All the available space in Britain was used for storage.

Newly thoughts up ideas were in the makings to be used at Normandy. One idea was to create artificial harbors on the coasts of Normandy. They would use heavy machinery to break German obstacles and destroy mines. These new ideas would be very useful in aiding Allied troops.

The men themselves were trained under conditions that would be similar to the ones they would soon be fighting at. These exercises were different from the ones they had known in the US. Troops continually worked at operating as a whole with other infantries. In some cases the men were even toughened up by having sessions of hand to hand combat. Paratroopers were also mentally and physically toughened up for their missions. The thirteen thousand plus men were said to be the greatest up to that time.

The heavy air attacks on the Germans coal railroads began in April of 1944 nearly two months before the actual invasion. These attacks were the first steps in the disruption of the Nazis communication centers. The three days that the Allies thought would be best for the invasion were the 5th, 6th, and 7th of June. If the weather did not meet their standard they would have to postpone the invasion. They believed that if they had to postpone the invasion that the consequences would be terrible.

On June 1st and 2nd the troops left their camps and headed straight for the Forts of embarkation. They were transferred under heavy surveillance of the military police. The day before the scheduled attack the weather turned terribly bad. General Eisenhower soon decided that the attack would have to be postponed. The weather soon cleared and the decision was made to go ahead with the act on June 6th.

The first men to see action would be the paratroopers from the American 101st and 82nd Airborne Divisions who were scheduled to drop behind enemy lines (Skipper 53). To move the 175,000 troopers across shore over 4,000 ships were used. Weapons and artillery were also boarded onto ships so they could aid the troopers once they landed. At the end of June 5th the preparations for the invasion had been finished.

Air fighters were used to knockout key points that were to seal off roads and highways to the shores. They were also very useful as scouts. Next gliders were to be sent carrying soldiers and anti tank weapons before the troops had reached the shores. There were serious loses due to the fact that the fields where they were forced to land were so terrible. Sainte-Mere-Eglise was the first German town to be captured by paratroopers.

The Germans who were surprised by the invasion were quick to prepare. The coastal defenses that they had prepared for this very moment were readied quickly. Soon Allied destroyers were used to try and fight the coastal defenses that the air force attacks did not destroy. As the battle raged on the transports prepared to bring their troops onshore. After the air fighters and warships had done their jobs the fate of the mission depended on the troops.
Soon the troops made it to the shores. The men were under heavy enemy fire. Three separate American divisions launched onto Utah and Omaha beach. They fought desperately to gain position. It looked as if the battle was going to be very tough for them. Casualties on D-Day were heavy. Nearly 3,000 troops were either missing in action, wounded or deceased on Omaha beach alone.
Due to the rough time the men had reaching the other beaches many of them were not fit to battle the Germans. That afternoon the Americans artillery was brought on shore and put into use. In the late afternoon of D-Day the beaches were secure and the troops started their move to the inland. Their efforts were slowed though because of Nazi obstacles that blocked their way.

Nazis had filled the French coast with mines. Although there were many mines the detection troops cleared the way quickly. The troops were able to move forward without that much of a delay. Another obstacle in the way of the Allied troops was the Nazi soldiers that hid in hedgerows. Many men fought continually to try and proceed.
Although there were no large scale surrenders the Allies gained enough hostages to provide officials with the needed information. After the first week of battle Allied casualties grew in numbers. Now it was over 100,000 men wounded, dead, or missing. On June 7th General Eisenhower took a look at the shores of the landing from a destroyer offshore. The weather had gotten significantly better now so the Allies were able to follow up their success. They were able to land reinforcements and materials.
Even though the invasion had been a success the fight was not over. The Allies still had to take offensive measures. They did such things as build portable harbors off the shores, which enabled them to send troops easily ashore. They also constructed airfields so they could support the advances of the ground troops.

Europe was now almost on the verge of freedom. D-Day was a successful mission. The troops training and preparation had paid off. The beaches still hummed with movement, and they were strewn with the litter and wreckage of war (Edwards 89). It may have only been one episode in World War 2, but it caused a lot of human casualties. Allied casualties added up to around 210,000 and the Germans lost close to 300,000.



A thousand years is a long time. So how do you pick the most influential person of the last thousand years? Its practically impossible to do. But almost everyone will agree that one of the most influential characters in the millennium was Martin Luther, father of the protestant church.
Luther was born November 10, 1483 in Eisleben, Thuringia (a province noted for its many musical talents, including Johann Sebastian Bach). Luther was brought up in the strict religious atmosphere of the roman catholic church. After attending the Latin Schools at Mansfeld, Magdeburg, and Eisenach, he entered the university at Erfurt in 1501. From this institution he received a bachelors degree in 1502 and a masters degree in 1505. During his student years, Luther was terrified by thoughts of the wrath of G-D. He continually sought a means of finding inward peace. To achieve this goal, he entered an Augustinian Monastery on July 17, 1505 to become a monk. Two years later, he was ordained a priest. In 1508 Luther was appointed professor of philosophy at Wittenburg university, and he also studies there to get the doctor of theology degree in 1512. In 1515 Luther was appointed Augustinian Vical for Meissen and Thuringia.
During the period of his appointment as vicar, Luther underwent a modification in his views and beliefs. He was still devoted to the church, but in his continued quest for inner peace, he turned from religious philosophy to the bible for the basis of his belief. These conclusions ultimately led Luther to combat some practices of the church.

Luther verus the church. A classic case of David and Goliath. There were many reasons Luther went against the church. But the sale of indulgences by Johann Tetzel in 1517 at a church near Wittenberg enticed Luther into action in the first place. Tetzel preached that buying indulgences would grant you a better place in heaven. On October 31, 1517, at the age of 33, Luther nailed his Ninety-Five Theses (1)to the castle church door at Wittenberg. This was not intended as a decisive attack on the church, and he did not want this to be circulated. However, the new spread quickly through Germany withing the next two weeks.

Later in 1518 Luther boldly denied the absolute power of the church. On March 3rd , 1519, Luther wrote a letter to Pope Leo X. In the letter he stated that it was not his intention to undermine the authority of the pope or the church. He did not want a war. On June 27th Luther had a debate with Johann Eck in Leipzig. At the heart of the debate is the issue of indulgences and the authority of the pope and the Roman Church. This debate ended on July 14, and Luther was convinced Eck won. As a result of the debate, the impact of the Luther-Rome dispute began to grow. Luther and his ideas become unignorable. Luther became more popular. On June 11th, 1520, one hundred knights who were in favor of Luther offered him protection. He accepted the offer, fearing assassination. But along with people starting to favor him, people started to hate him. On November 12th, Luther’s books were burned in Wittenburg. Burning of his books in others cities follow shortly thereafter. On November 20th, Luther writes Freedom of the Christian Man, and publishes it along with an open letter to Pope Leo X. In the letter Luther apologizes to the pope personally, but continued to denounce what he sees as false doctrine and corruption. On December 10th, Luther burnt Exsurge Domine and other documents of the pope. He also burnt books of church law and books written by his enemies.
On March 6, 1521, the Emperor Charles V summoned Luther to appear the diet of Worms. Luther traveled to the city of Worms of April 6th, and stopped along the way to preach in Erfurt, Gotha, and Frankfurt. On April 15th Luther entered Worms in triumphal precession. A crowd had gathered to cheer him. On April 17th the first hearing of the Diet of Worms began. An official pointed to a table of books and asked if Luther was willing to take back the things he said. Luther asked for a recess. The next day Luther made a statement, “Unless I am convinced by scripture and plain reasonI do not accept the authority of popes and councils, for they have contradicted each othermy conscience is captive to the word of G-D. I cannot and I will not recant anything, for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. G-D help me!” The emperor sided with Rome and wanted Luther condemned immediately. But some members of the Diet wanted to give Luther a few more days to recant. On April 25th the Diet of Worms was dismissed. Luther left Worms as quickly as possible. On May 10th Luther arrived at the Wartburg castle, near Eisenach. He hid there for nearly ten months, from may 5th to February 29th 1522. During that time, Luther grew his hair and a beard and called himself Junker Jorg (knight George). During that time, on May 26th, the edict of Worms was signed by the Emperor and issued. It formally condemned Luther’s teaching, and placed him under the ban of the empire. In February in the year 1522, then ban on Luther and his followers was lifted. The next few months he went around preaching his beliefs. Then on September 21st a major eventLuther published the New Testament in German. This gave him many more followers because people started reading the New Testament, and they realized a lot of what Luther preached is true. This also increased literacy greatly. The church did not like this. They order Luther and his followers to stop printing it. But by this time Luther is so powerful the church can not do anything to him. Luther stopped wearing a religious habit (2), showing disobedience to the church. In 1524 the peasants in southwest Germany rose up under Luther’s example. They were ready to over throw the authorities if necessary. But on May 13th, 1525, at the battle of Frankenhausen, 50,000 peasants are killed. 1000 castles and monasteries are destroyed. On May 15th Protestant ministers are hanged by catholic princes. The peasants believed they were betrayed by Luther.
So the question standswhat affect does Luther have on today’s life? Now for me, since im Jewish, the effect is not much. But for the protestant citizens of America and the world, he is there father. He is to them almost what Moses or Abraham is to me. Now since religion is such a major part of life, the person who founded your specific religion is pretty influential on your life. Luther was also very influential on music, which also carries over to today’s church.


Gender Bias

Whoever said men and women are equal must be blind. Women have always taken a back seat to men in American society. There has always seemed to be one set of standards that apply to men, and another set of standards that apply to women. This is evident in the home, workplace, and all throughout society.
I would like to briefly discuss some of the differences that we learn about our gender, which will enable us to better understand men, women, and domestic violence in society today. Once we understand causation, we can then begin to understand effects and prevention.

Our supposed roles as men and women start at the hospital when we are born. Boys get blue blankets while girls get pink blankets. The toys we play with growing up are targeted at either males or females. Toys that are made for little boys include trucks, blocks, guns, soldiers, and action figures. While toys made for little girls include dolls, kitchen utensils, dress-up, and doll houses. Boys are raised to be aggressive, tough, dominant, and daring, while girls are raised to be passive, emotional, sweet, and subordinate. These patterns and thought processes continue on into our adulthood and begin to play out in our relationships with others, which include dating and marriage.

With these gender biases and stereotypes in mind, it is easy to see how domestic violence can exist in today’s society. More importantly, we begin to understand how these negative messages can effect us personally. Although domestic violence includes sibling abuse, elder abuse, and child abuse, the focus of my essay will be on spousal abuse. Domestic violence has many names such as family violence, battering, wife beating, and domestic abuse. However, as discussed in class, domestic violence is not limited to physical beatings alone. Domestic violence is any behavior that is intended to subjugate and control another human being through the use of humiliation, fear, and physical or verbal assaults.
So what makes an abuser? The goal of the abuser is power and control over their partner. Domestic violence can affect all, but more often it is the male inflicting the harm due to their physical advantage and also their societal taught dominating role. The abuser tends to conform to the stereotypical view of the man and women. The man goes out to make the money and support the family, while women stays home to cook, clean, and look after the kids. In knowing this, it is easy to understand why leaving an abusive relationship can be so difficult for the individual being abused, as leaving involves many needed changes and few solutions to the problems.
Domestic violence is a very important social problem that we must educate ourselves on because it has such a profound and negative effect on the individual(s) being abused. They are affected mentally, emotionally, physically, and I know from experience that the scars can run very deep. Being in an abusive relationship for three years was devastating to my self-image as a teenager, and because of these feelings of inadequacy, my decreasing esteem allowed me to stay in such a dangerous scenario. Healing from the negative effects of that relationship has been a difficult journey for me, and I can only imagine how much more difficult it must be for women abused for years on end. To this day, I struggle greatly with the ability to let go of my own “control” and trust others. I have a very difficult time believing that my significant other can truly have my best interest at heart. I have the intellectual ability to grasp the logical aspect of each situation, but when it comes to matters of the heart I tend to be very guarded. It is so important that we, as a whole, learn to extinguish domestic violence so that the healing process can begin for many and never even be needed for others.
Most people in today’s society agree that domestic violence is wrong and think that it should be stopped. As a society, we know that domestic violence is unacceptable, yet we do very little to become involved and prevent it. Victims of domestic violence are often reluctant to leave the abusive relationship because of their feelings of dependency. People who are abused tend to think that there is no way out because they are so dependent on their partner. They continue to put up with the abuse and learn ways to cope with it. Domestic violence has been acted out for thousands of years, so it is no wonder that there is still the acceptance and view from society that it is not a major problem, or more accurately, it is not “their problem”.
When domestic violence occurs there is several different types of abuse that take place. There is physical violence, emotional abuse, mental abuse, and sexual abuse, and although many people do not realize it, sexual abuse does not exclude married or dating couple.

Being aware of the different types of abuse that can and are taking place is important for us to know, because we can see this message being taught through the media, entertainment, magazines, etc. Time and again, we see the woman being taken advantage of or treated as an object by the man, and this negative portrayal of relationships seeps daily into our own lives.

Teaching our children that violence is inappropriate and teaching them better methods of problem solving, is the first step in ending domestic violence. One of the key components to making the teaching of our children work is leading by example and setting a positive model for them to follow. Educating society as a whole is also a very important key to ending domestic violence, and this can be accomplished through changes in public policy and practices. Greater consequences are needed since most abusers are only given a “slap on the wrist”, which impresses a message that domestic violence is something that people can get away with it. Only when communities establish mandatory arrest and prosecution policies, then will a message be sent out to the police and courts that domestic violence is a crime that society will not tolerate. In my opinion, it is not only the individual abusers, rather, society as a whole which needs great help. Domestic violence is still extensive and this needs to end. Our media and entertainment industries still glamorize and demean the seriousness of domestic violence, and they greatly influence our behavior by showing false examples of how we should act and react to one another.

In closing, I do believe that we are on the right track to ending domestic violence but our effort is just not strong enough because our message that domestic violence is a crime is not strong enough. This class has opened my eyes and made me aware of what is going on and what needs to be done. In the future, I will do what is needed to stop this violence around me, and I will accomplish this by simply using my voice and speaking out about what is wrong.


Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic Fibrosis
Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive trait on chromosome 7. This
disorder affects chloride transport resulting in abnormal mucus production.

This lifelong illness usually gets more severe with age and can affect both
males and females. Symptoms and severity differ from person to person. Cystic
fibrosis is the most common fatal inherited disease among whites and the major
cause of chronic lung disease in children. 50% of people are expected to live
to be 30, but a majority die before age thirteen. 1:2000 whites have cystic
fibrosis, 1:17000 blacks, 1:6000 live births, 1:2500 Americans, and 1:20 is a

The genes are inherited in pairs, with one gene coming from each parent
to make the pair. Cystic fibrosis occurs when both genes have mutations. A
person with cystic fibrosis receives one cystic fibrosis gene from each parent.

The parents of a child, with cystic fibrosis, each carry one nonworking copy of
the gene and one working copy of the gene. The parents are called cystic
fibrosis carriers, and because they have one working gene they have no symptoms.

Carrier parents have 1:4 chance to have a child who is a noncarrier of cystic
fibrosis, a 1:2 chance to have a child who carries the gene, and a 1:4 chance
with each pregnancy to have an affected child. If you have a son or daughter
with cystic fibrosis, then you have a 1:1 chance of being a carrier. If you have
a brother or sister with CF, you have a 2:3 chance of being a carrier. If you
have a niece or nephew with CF, you have a 1:2 chance of being a carrier. If
you have an aunt or uncle with CF, you have a 1:3 chance of being a carrier and
a 1:4 chance if you have a 1st cousin with CF.

Cystic fibrosis affects the lungs in particular. The secretions are
thick and sticky rather than thin and watery. This interferes with the removal
of dust and germs. It can lead to lung infections and even chronic lung damage.

Air passages become clogged with mucus and there is often widespread obstruction
of the bronchioles. Expiration is especially difficult. More and more air
becomes trapped in the lungs, which results in obstructive emphysema.

Atelectasis can occur leaving small areas collapsed. Eventually the chest
assumes a barrel shape. The right ventricle, which supplies the lungs, may
become strained and enlarged. Clubbing of the finger and toes may occur due to
the compensation response indicating the chronic lack of oxygen.

Cystic fibrosis affects the pancreas. The mucus clogs the duct and
blocks the transfer of enzymes from the pancreas to the intestines. These
enzymes are needed to break down food that is necessary for proper growth and
weight gain. The mucus in the digestive tract blocks the absorption of
necessary nutrients. This is why there is often no weight gain despite good
appetites. This can be associated with failure to thrive. The buttocks and
thighs atrophy or waste away due to the fat disappearing from main deposit sites.

People usually have light colored stools. There is also decreased blood
cholesterol due to the poor absorption of fats from the intestine.

Cystic fibrosis can also affect the reproductive systems. Men are
usually sterile due to the mucus blockage or absence of the vas deferens. Women
usually have difficult conceiving, because the mucus interferes with the passage
of sperm.

Cystic fibrosis is usually diagnosed in childhood. Mild cases may not
be detected until adulthood. Common symptoms include chronic cough, wheezing,
cyanosis, difficulty breathing, irritability, excessive mucus production, sinus
infections, nasal polyps, recurrent pneumonia, poor growth, frequent loose foul-
smelling stools, enlarged fingertips, and skin that is salty to the taste. The
sweat test is usually used to detect high levels of salt. More than 60m Eq/L of
chloride in sweat up to age 20 is diagnostic of CF when 1 or more criteria are
present. Levels of 40-60 are highly suggestive. Direct genetic testing or
reverse dot-blot can also be used. Amniocentesis is performed between weeks 15-
22. Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) can be used to take a piece of placental
tissue between weeks 9-12. Labs are also used in diagnosing CF. There is
decreased pancreatic enzymes trypsin, lipase, and amylase. Absence of trypsin
alone is indicative of CF.

One complication of CF is a rare condition known as meconium ileus. The
intestine of the newborn becomes obstructed with abnormally thick meconium due
to the absence of pancreatic enzymes. The intestine can rupture resulting in
shock. Signs and symptoms develop within hours after birth and include absence
of stools, vomiting, and abdominal distention. X-rays are used to confirm this
and surgery is used to correct the problem. The death rate is high including
premature births and most who survive will manifest CF. Nurses in the nursery
must be on guard for early detection. Rectal prolapse occurs in infants and
children due to poor muscle tone in the rectal area and excessive leanness. It
may be related to difficulty passing the frequent bulky stools. Fecal impaction
and intussusception or telescoping of the bowel are other bowel complications in
infants and toddlers. The liver becomes hard, nodular, and enlarged with
progression. There is often edema in the extremities. There may be damage to
the eye as a result from swelling and inflammation of the optic nerve. The
retina may also hemorrhage. Improper lung function can cause heart strain
resulting in death. Osteoporosis results from poor utilization of the fat-
soluble vitamin D, which is necessary for proper calcium metabolism. The bones
become porous and brittle. Deficiency of vitamin A occurs from the body’s
inability to absorb fats from which vitamin A is obtained. Sexual development
may be delayed and women may experience secondary amenorrhea during

There is no cure to date. They have made progress towards a cure. They
isolated the gene at U of M in 1989. This was the first human genetic disease
to be cloned. They thought it was linked to the trace mineral Boron. Copies of
the normal gene were made in 1990. They realized that the protein product of
the gene, transmembrane conductance regulator or CFTR, influences chloride
transport but were unsure how that led to CF. Gene therapy was experimented in
1993 along with the first drug called Pulmozyme. Ibuprofen was ruled effective
in decreasing lung problems in children in 1995. They ruled in 1996 that the
bacteria killing agent doesn’t function in people with CF due to the excessive
salt outside the epithelial cells. This allows pseudomonas and staphlococcus to
cause chronic bacterial infections.

Treatment of CF includes taking Pancrease, an oral enteric coated
pancreatic enzyme preparation, with meals and snacks to help aid in digestion.

Fluids should be increased and liberal amounts of salt intake. Fluids are
forced to prevent dehydration from frequent stools and excessive sweating.

Salt tablets are often used in older children. Frequent high calorie meals
and snacks are used to help maintain weight. Don’t pile food on a child’s
tray. Make it attractive and the size should correlate with the child’s size.

Make mealtime a social time and encourage the child to eat. If he is in a
private room, then stay with him or have someone in the room.

The nurse feeding an infant must be calm and unhurried. Calories
should be increased by 50% along with protein. Fat intake should decrease.

Supplement vitamins A,D, and E are used double the recommended daily dose.

Skim milk is often added to formula in infancy. Vitamin K is often given.

Complex sugars should decrease and simple sugars should increase. Many
doctors allow the child to eat what he wants and just increases pancreatic
enzymes to provide a “normal” atmosphere.Weights are taken daily.

Respiratory relief comes from postural drainage, pursed-lip breathing,
general exercise to stimulate cough, deep breathing and coughing exercises,
bronchodilators, expectorants, antibiotic use, intermittent aerosol therapy,
and the controversial mist tent therapy. Injections should be avoided
due to the excessive leanness but if necessary the sites must be monitored and
alternated. Pay special attention to the skin. Cleanse the diaper area after
each bowel movement. Ointment is often used to protect skin from stools.

Expose the buttocks to air when a rash occurs. Pay special attention to the
bony areas in order to prevent decubitus ulcers. Change position frequently due
to the lack of fat and muscle. This helps to prevent skin breakdown and
pneumonia. Don’t leave the person staring at a blank wall. Air deodorant is
advisable to prevent lingering of offensive odors. Light clothing is
recommended to prevent overheating. Loose clothing allows freedom of movement.

Good oral hygiene is necessary especially due to dietary deficiencies. Make
sure oral hygiene is also performed after postural drainage. Make sure
immunizations are up-to-date and the influenza vaccine is also recommended. CF
patients are usually in isolation to help prevent secondary infections. Allow
for rest. This is very important as is prevention as a whole.

CF is hard on children. They often feel different from other children
and tire easily.It is hard for them to accept restricted activity. They get
really embarrassed about their stools. Give the child straight forward answers
regarding his illness to prevent further anxiety. Uninvolved diagrams can be
helpful. If he understands, he is more apt to be cooperative. Visiting hours
should be flexible for parents. You should be considerate and encouraging.

Showing undue concern can, however, cause the child to exaggerate and be
demanding for attention.

Parents may have knowledge deficit and may need a lot of teaching and
explanation. One of the misconception parents have is that their child’s
intelligence is greatly decreased. Intelligence is not affected. Parents often
feel guilty, since this is an inherited disease. The child spends the majority
of his time at home due to this lengthy illness. The child is also hospitalized
for complications although stays are short to prevent exposure to other
infections and illnesses. This puts a financial, physical, and emotional burden
on the family. When do the parents find time for each other, themselves, or
other children? How do they distribute their time and energy equally and
fairly? Parents need encouragement and reassurance. They also need explicit
instructions. Parent groups can help along with the Nat’l CF Research
Foundation and the 1-800-FIGHT-CF hotline. Parents usually need help from a
social worker and financial help for special equipment. Insist parents to get
help from other family members or friends and encourage them to get away from it
all periodically. Alarm clocks can remind them of medication times.

Kingdom of Benin

Benin was an influential city-state in northwest Africa generally from the
15th to 17th century. It was founded by the Edo or Bini people in the 13th
century, and by the early 14th century a royal court was in place. It was
always ruled by a powerful king who was usually a former war leader. The
kings, however, later became a more religious figure. The kingdom has been
though to extend throughout what is presently southern Nigeria.

One of its most successful kings was Ozoula. During his reign, from about
1480 to 1504, Benin established many commercial and diplomatic relations with
Portugal. The kingdom participated in a lot of trade with Europe. Some of
the goods they traded included palm oil, ivory, pepper, and textiles. Another
industry Benin took place in was the slave trade. Mostly POW’s and women were
traded, but in the early years, men of the tribe were also given away.

Gradually, the power of the kingdom decreased as the 18th and 19th centuries
passed. Eventually, in 1897, the area was annexed to British Nigeria. While
tribesmen still led the area, the real control was in the hands of the

One of the richest arts that originated in Africa are some of the hand cast
bronzes that came out of the kingdom of Benin. These became known as the
Benin Bronzes. The casting of brass was strictly a royal art and anyone found
casting brass without royal permission was faced with execution. Whenever a
king or a major figure died, a beautiful commemorative head was cast out of
bronze in his honor. These heads were displayed at shrines found all
throughout the royal palace. Also found in the royal palace were eight wall-
sized bronze plaques. Each plaque depicted kings, chiefs, and great warriors
in battle. They each depict a different event in Benin’s history. Many
things including utensils and weapons have also been found, each hand cast
with brass. As you can see, the Beninian people were very gifted in this fine
art and it is one of the richest parts of their culture.