With the help of a Union Victory during the Civil

war, the reconstruction era had pushed forth bringing with it social and constitutional developments that evolved into an abyss of controversy and debate. Occurring mainly between the years 1860-1877, these developments necessitated a change. The social and constitutional developments, although they may have seemed beneficial at the time, would lead to a revolution in the future and continue to do so in today?s world.

A major premise in the beginning of the Civil War had been the issue of state?s rights. It had been clearly demonstrated that the federal government lacked too great authority when South Carolina had seceded from the nation. It had shown virtual nullification of federal authority in doing so, per their interpretations of the 10th amendment to the Constitution, which states that, ??declared powers not delegated to the United States?are reserved to the states?? Thus, in the years following the Civil War, federal government worked on expanding its authority.


A step towards this direction had been shown when amendments such as the 13th (abolishment of slavery), 14th (citizenship for Blacks), and 15th (Black male suffrage), had been passed. Gideon Wells, Lincoln?s former Secretary of the Navy, had thought that these premises could be accomplished by constitutional means, (once again increasing the authority of the federal government).However, civil rights for Black Americans, he felt, held no warrant for the authority of the federal government, thus necessitating change.


This had been affirmed in a petition of Black Americans in a Union convention (occurring in 1865 as stated in a diary entry by Gideon Wells). In the petition, they had asked that since they had been allotted space to fight in the United States Army, they also should have the rights to express their sentiment through voting. Once again, it was an opportunity necessitating further enhancement of the power of the federal government and thus needing change.


Aside from constitutional developments that were debated and examined during 1860-1877, a number of social developments took place that set the foundation for a revolution to amount in the future.


In an effort to obtain their own land, the freedmen had petitioned to the commissioner of the Freedman?s Bureau and to the President, asking why they had not been allowed to hold the homesteads they were allowed by the government. This was another premise, which showed a lack of federal power and was further enhanced with the passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1877, which negated most of which the 14th amendment stood for.


Shown in the cover of an issue of the Harper?s Weekly was a Black American voting in the year 1867. However, due to acts such as the Black Codes and ineffectiveness of the military in the South, groups such as the Ku Klux Klan infringed upon the liberty and freedoms of the Black Americans. This idea is also shown in a cartoon by Thomas Nast, which depicts a Black family under the wrath of white supremacy.


The period between 1860-1877 showed governmental weakness due to lack of federal power. Advocated had begun to arise that argued for rights of Black Americans, such as Booker T. Washington, but not to the effect of changing the ideals of the time. The stage, however, was now set for a new type of advocacy; a new type of revolution.

Music Censorship

Music today comes in more forms and is used more frequently then anytime in our history. As in many years past it is available on the radio, tape, compact disk and is digitally encoded on microchips. One particularly strong use of music is used in advertising and movies. Therefore, it is obvious that music can convey extremely strong messages in a subliminal way. For this reason, the question must be asked, what impact does it have on youths today?
Due to changes in the society, federal laws, and affluence in America, youths have more leisure time than ever. Naturally, one of their favorite escapes is music. Since freedom of speech is a constitutional right, this right is assumed to likewise apply to music. Musical artists have used this right, and sometimes for the sake of shock value, produce music that conveys extreme levels of violence, hatred, and sexually graphic content. In this respect, it is being suggested as a strong influence in many different violent acts, such as the Columbine High School massacre. Should the music be controlled? And if so, who should control it?
Due to the citizens influence, the federal government has pressured the record companies to at least place a rating on their music similar to the movie industry. Should the record companies take a more active role in monitoring? In my opinion, maybe, in fairness to the artist, since they were signed onto a record label and are paid based upon their creativity. This generates profits for them and the company. Therefore, to think that either one will take the responsibility of limiting their work is not likely to happen, because would impact their income.

This leaves the question, should parents have the responsibility to monitor the music in which the children listen? In many cases, since they provide the income and the equipment to play the music, they have the responsibility and obligation to supervise and lead their children on a path of positive influences. The same youths who are able to bypass their parents control can equally bypass a recording industries control. When parents decide to take on the responsibility of having children, they must bear the responsibility of determining the influences in their childs life. Though this is not a perfect solution, it is more reasonable to expect more controls from parents then from profit-driven companies.

Therefore, in a perfect society, industries would take the responsibility for their impact on their customers but if parents cannot influence, and help guide their children, then who should? Citizens (parents) cannot expect the government or industry to monitor and guide their children, if they are not willing to take the direct responsibility themselves. Steps are being taken through retail stores to help in solving this problem. For explicit music, Wal-Mart will only sell edited versions, and K-Mart will sell only with identification of 18 years and older. Therefore, parental influence is making a difference on monitoring.
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Telecommunications Advances

Today, telecommunications technology affects lives to a greater degree than ever
before. Communication has evolved over many years from the earliest attempts at
verbal communication to the use of sophisticated technology to enhance the
ability to communicate effectively with others. Every time a telephone call is
made, a television is watched, or a personal computer is used, benefits of
telecommunication technologies are being received. The concept of
telecommunications may be defined as the transmission of information from one
location to another by electronic means. Telecommunications is using electronic
systems to communicate. Life is changing constantly and has been changing faster
since the rapid advancements in telecommunication. Because of continuing
attempts to find better and more efficient ways to communicate, the process of
communication has steadily improved. Many of these improvements were made
without the use of electronic technology. Human beings earliest attempts at
communication were through nonverbal means such as facial expressions and
gesturing. The use of these nonverbal signs, prehistoric people were able to
communicate emotions such as fear, anger, and happiness. More specific motions,
such as pointing, allowed them to convey more information . Verbal communication
probably started with a series of disorganized but meaningful sounds (grunts and
snarls). These sounds slowly developed into a system of organized, spoken
language that truly allowed humans to share information (Croal 59). Writing,
which is the use of symbols to represent language, began with early cave
drawings, progressed to picture writings such as hieroglyphics, and finally
evolved into the handwritten language we use today (Croal 61). As civilization
developed, people found it necessary to communicate their ideas to one another
over greater distances. The earliest method of transporting information was to
carry it from place to place; but as the development of commerce made speed an
essential part, greater effort was expended to increase the rate at which ideas
were transmitted (Croal62). The search for rapid transport of information led to
the formation of the pony express in 1860 (Cozic 77). Although the pony express
required several weeks to carry mail from the East Coast to the West Coast, it
was a vast improvement over the earlier methods. The pony express was not the
only time humans teamed up with animals to attempt to improve communications.


Dogs and pigeons were used to carry messages, especially during wartime . Most,
if not all, of the early forms of communication had two significant problems.


Both the speed at which information could be effectively communicated and the
distance over which information could be sent were severely limited. With the
advancements in forms of electronic communication, these problems were solved.


It was even before the pony express that a true technological breakthrough was
made. In 1844, the first electronic transmission occurred when Samuel Morse
developed a system of dots and dashes to symbolize letters of the alphabet. A
transmission device called the telegraph was used to send the coded signals over
wires. The telegraph was to become the primary method of reliable and rapid
communication during the American Civil War . It took quite a few years to link
the major cities of America by telegraph wires, but by 1861 the pony express was
replaced . Telegraphic communication became a major part of Americas business
and military history. One of the early telegraph companies, Western Union,
became the dominant carrier. Today, Western Union, through the use of modern
technology, transmits information twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week.


Actual voice communication over distance finally became possible in 1876 when
Alexander Graham Bell held the first telephone conversation with his assistant,
Thomas Watson . This alternative to written communication rapidly helped the
telephone become the worlds most important communication tool. By 1866 the
first successful attempt to link Europe and America by undersea cable had been
accomplished. This cable was capable of carrying telegraph data only . The
telephone today remains a vital tool, and like the telegraph, the telephone is
constantly being improved by modern technology . By 1900, the goal of
communication technologists was to find a method of transmitting messages over
long distances without the need for wires. That dream became reality in 1901
when Gugliellmo Marconi and two assistants stood on a hill in Newfoundland and
listened carefully to their receiver. Faintly they heard the Morse code”dot-dot-dot,” the letter s. the signal had traveled 1,700 miles from
Cornwall, England, and it represented the first successful wireless
transmission. This success led Marconi to form Marconi Wireless Telegraphy
Company. It was not until the Titanic disaster in 1912, however, that wireless
transmissions became commercially profitable. As the Titanic was sinking, the
ships radio operator transmitted distress signals over his wireless
telegraph. A passing ship, the Carpathia, which sped to the Titanics location
and rescued 700 of the 2,200 people aboard, picked up the signals. Shortly after
this disaster, most maritime nations required wireless telegraphs on all large
ships. The Marconi experiment eventually led to the development of the radio. On
an evening in November, 1920, radio station KDKA in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,
went on the air with the first live radio broadcast. By 1922, 564 radio stations
were on the air. Today, thousands of radio stations broadcast our favorite
music, news, weather, and sports information . As important as it was, the
impact of the transmission of sounds by wire and by wireless methods seems
minor, when the effect of television, the device that permits the transmission
of both sounds and images. In 1926 J.L. Baird, working with the British
Broadcasting Company (BBC), became the first person to transmit a television
picture, and in 1936 the worlds first television service was introduced . By
1948, twenty television stations were on the air. The first color television
service began in the United States in 1954 . Sociologist James K. Martin
believes ” The impact of television is legendary and has totally changed the
way American families live” . Modern telecommunications rely on modern
technology and one of the most important elements of that technology is the
computer. Todays computer industry is moving with great momentum. Most
schools are equipped to teach computer skills, and it is no longer rare for a
student to come to first grade with a basic understanding of computers gained
from the familys personal computer . In 1930 an American electrical
scientist, Vannevar Bush, constructed the first analog computer . However, the
person credited with developing the first digital computer is Howard Aiken of
Harvard University, who completed his project in 1944 . Analog signals are a
constant flow of information, whereas digital signals are a series of short
bursts of information. Historian Mark Halls says, “most historians point to
ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) as the real beginning of
computer technology” . Engineers at the University of Pennsylvania built this
giant computer in 1946. ENIAC utilized vacuum tubes to control computer
functions. The concept of storing programs in a computers memory is credited to
John van Neumann, an American mathematician. It was in 1951 that the developers
of ENIAC constructed Univac I, which became the first computer to be
mass-produced . The traditional U.S. postal service is not oriented to meet
needs for instant information access, so many mailboxes have become electronic.


Electronic messages can be sent any hour of the day or night using a computer, a
modem, and a telephone. These electronic messages may be read, filed, stored,
erased, printed, and rerouted. A computer used in conjunction with the telephone
line and a television set allows homeowners to view merchandise, compare prices,
and do electronic shopping. No longer are bank customers dependent on bankers
hours to withdraw money or to obtain account information . Many school libraries
have a new reference resource, an electronic encyclopedia. Libraries connect to
electronic encyclopedias with personal computers. Facts can be read on the
screen or sent to the printer. Through the use of telecommunications, the
opportunity to access vast amounts of information located in large commercial
data bases are beyond belief. Within a matter of seconds, a computer can access
information and can appear on its screen. Today, information services bring new
learning opportunities and data into the home through telecommunications ). The
information age has already arrived, and telecommunication technology has played
an important role in it. It has already had an impact on what have been
considered traditional methods of transmitting information over distances. This
new technology has also changed the methods by which information is manipulated
and stored. Telecommunications is changing the way people work, play, live and
think.

hero in america

October 17, 1996
Essay # 3
” and he saved the day, got his girl and everyone lived happily ever after.” Sweet, short, cut and dry, that was the typical ending of our childhood books and early movies. There was the perfect hero and the bad villain. That was in the pre-modern era, now our hero isnt always perfect and has his flaws. The hero in todays movies needs these flaws and needs to travel through a combination of paths to become a hero. In order to sell movies which decide who a hero is in todays society. A hero in todays society needs to admit that he needs help and isnt superman, he needs to have problems and prove that he doesnt belong up on a pedestal where his image is totally unattainable, third he needs to travel one of the paths of a hero according to Seger. Bruce Willis plays the character John McClain in the trilogy Die Hard, he is a good example of a hero in America today.

In the third movie, McClain takes on a partner to help him fight a mad bomber. This is different from the movies from the past, James Bond or John Wayne never needed help. The partner he picks is a inner city black man, in the fifties this never would have happened. The fact that he picks a black man incorporates some multicultural aspects into the movie. The fact that he picks a partner shows some post modern aspects of Hollywood. Both of these facts help sell movies and help define a hero in America today.

Another aspect that makes McClain a post modern hero in America is the fact that he to has problems, James Bond was never like this, he always had a woman by his side, or falling at his feet. People held this man in high esteem, because he was perfect. However in real life blond bimbos at your feet dont happen all the time. Post modern heroes have problems McClain even though he is out saving lives and helping people his wife wants a divorce. People can relate better to John McClain because we all have problems besides the bad guys. The hero today isnt so perfect and people are able to relate to him more easily.

The travel of a hero from an average guy to a hero via the myths defined by Seger is also another determining factor in what a hero is today. McClain travels through the combination myth. He was an average cop when thrown into all this chaos and makes the commitment to doing something about it endangering his life. He also travels through the healing myth when he is fighting in the first movie his relationship with his wife is on the rocks but he realizes during his fighting how much he really needs and loves his wife. In the end his relationship is strengthened and the healing journey is over.

Through the ages a hero is defined by someone who people admire and want to be more like. The hero in ancient Greek times was Hercules and then in came Beowulf and then King Arthur and so on. A hero doesnt necessarily have to be real but some one that people can strive to be more like, and when those situations arise (not usually as big as in Hollywood) they will know how to act. The heroes of Hollywood are not as good as role models as those of the past, but they still follow the same guide lines as them. They have comforted to what sells in order to make movies and as you see everywhere negative sells.


Category: English

None Provided76

THE SILENCE OF THE LAMBS The novel The Silence of the Lambs by Thomas Harris is said to fall under the genre of psychological horror. The stories that fall under the genre of horror include a few essential elements: a villain or one seen as evil to create an initial story line. The foil is the next element; a foil is a person who tries to stop the villain from going through with the evil plan or plot. These two elements naturally lead to conflict between the two persons or groups and then from this conflict – suspense, the last element is added. Suspense is important to keep the reader interested and to keep the story line going. When psychology is added to a story, the definition of horror is changed completely. There are still those few essential elements above but there is also a few more added. The story now has something to do with the mind and how it works, and there is really no definition for that. The mind and it’s workings are a mystery to us and that mystery of the mind adds to the suspense and therefore the idea of psychology and horror are able to go together and become one. This essay will prove that The Silence of the Lambs is indeed a psychological horror according to the five criteria above along with other sources. The first element to a psychological horror is a villain, and the villain is The Silence of the Lambs is Mr. Jame Gumb. He is a white male in his mid thirties, “most serial killers are white male, unemployed, intelligent and experience financial difficulty.”(Bonata, 3) Gumb is all of these things, he is unemployed but a very skilled seamstress, and using these skills is making himself a second skin out of women who he is able to take control of and render them powerless. He is also very intelligent but is anable to interact with other people and therefore remains unemployed. He experienced financial difficulties until he was the recipient of a large sum of money from an inheritance. “The unconscious fear of women goads some men with a compulsive urge to conquer, humiliate, hurt, or render powerless some available sample of womanhood.” (Menninger, 183) Gumb was deeply disturbed and unable to overcome the death of his mother and he wanted to be like her and resented any woman because he feels that he should have been born a woman instead of the man that he is. He is sewing a skin of women to try to become more like his mother and less of the man that he is. This is how he received his nickname “Buffalo Bill” because the way he murders and then skins his victims. Jame Gumb is a very disturbed individual and his “violence and crimes are often attempts to escape from insanity.” (Menninger, 181) Jame Gumb is in a word where he believes that he can become a woman and live somehow be with his mother again or even attempt to become her. “Men who are violently afraid of their repressed but nearly emergent homosexual desired often try to overcome these fears with violent demonstrations.” (Menninger, 183) Jame Gumb did not know what he was in terms of sexuality and decided that he would rather be a woman than a man. This desire drove him to commit such horrible crimes and try to become a woman using their skins. The foils to Jame Gumb are a much stronger force that he is or could ever be, they are the Federal Bureau of Investigation or the FBI. They want to stop the murders as soon as possible so that no other lives are lost and the country can get back to normal without living with the fear of a serial killer on the loose. Along with the FBI, an X-psychiatrist named Dr. Hannibal Lecter and, Clarice Starling they try to stop the murders and regain order to society, this is not an easy task and there are many obstacles along the way. The first obstacle is that the whereabouts of Gumb are unknown and his identity has alluded the FBI since the murders first begun. The only link that they have to the murder is Jame Gumb’s X- psychiatrist named Dr Hannibal Lecter. Lecter gives Clarice Starling a few hints with every visit she makes she makes to him about the murder. While revealing hints about the murders is, at the same time revealing something about Clarice’s childhood. This causes Starling to search inside of herself for the answers to the questions she has been looking for about her life and childhood while at the same time trying to solve the case of Buffalo Bill. Lecter proves to be a trustworthy aid and does help the case and Jame Gumb is eventually found. The next element in not just a psychological horror but in any novel is the idea of conflict. There is a great deal of conflict between not only the FBI and Jame Gumb but also between a few other parties. The reasons for the conflict between the FBI and Jame Gumb are evident- the FBI would like him to be captured and Gumb will do anything to stop them. He keeps quiet and avoids contact with other people, he hides the bodies of the murdered women and drops them away from his home to avoid being caught. He wants to achieve his dream of being a woman and he will let nothing stop him. The next conflict in the novel is between the FBI and Dr. Hannibal Lecter. The FBI sees Lecter as a threat to the case and does not advocate his involvement with the case of Buffalo Bill. The FBI knows how brilliant Dr. Lecter is and they are not sure if he can be trusted to tell the truth about what he knows about Buffalo Bill. The last conflict involves Clarice Starling and the struggle that she is facing within herself. She is searching inside herself for answers to the questions that she forgot she knew about, things about her past, childhood and about her entire life. Dr. Lecter brings up things in Starling’s life that she needed in order for her life to be complete. She is able to straighten things out in her life that have stopped her from achieving her full potential in the past. With doing this the case of Buffalo Bill is solved. The closing of the case did not come without suspense however. Through the entire book there was some sort of suspense weather it concerned Buffalo Bill, the actions of Hannibal Lecter, or the situation that Clarice Starling was in. The last seven chapters are the most suspenseful chapters of the story. They deal with the capture and killing of Jame Gumb, the rescuing of the prisoner that he held hostage and finally the freeing of Clarice Starling from the “screaming of the lambs”. Clarice starling murders Jame Gumb and his prisoner is set free with a few minor injuries. Clarice Starling finally finds peace within her and is able to enjoy life to the fullest and she owes it all the Dr. Hannibal Lecter. The location of Lecter is left unknown which leave the reader without a final closing further adding to the suspense of the novel. Novels in the genre of psychological horror are said to have the elements listed above. This essay has proven that the elements are indeed in the novel The Silence of the Lambs and therefore the novel is a psychological horror. The elements listed above are found through out the novel and are just a few of the many instances in which they occur.
Bibliography:

The Roman Society

The Roman Society
The changes in the Roman government affected the social classes and
rights gradually became more equal among the people of Rome. New laws and new
leaders tried to make society become closer in equality through reforms. It was
a long and difficult process to be freed or to become a citizen of Rome and not
many accomplished it. Plebeians and woman were thought of as worthless citizens
in society, but through time they gained more rights. To show that this is true,
I will be addressing four topics: plebeians versus. patricians, women, merchants
and artisans, and slaves and non-citizens.


When Rome established a republic in 509 B.C., two major classes
developed. The patricians controlled the government with a Senate, made up of
300 elected officials. The senate chose two consuls to administer the laws of
Rome. The only power that plebeians had in the government was with a popular
assembly, which approved the choice of consuls. Plebeians could not hold public
office or marry into a patrician family. During the time of the Republic to the
time of the empire, plebeians, who fought in many wars to help Rome gain power,
demanded more rights. The government slowly began to change to appeal to
plebeians who out-numbered everyone else in population.


Around 494 B.C., an Assembly of Centuries and an Assembly of Tribes rly
of Centuries and an Assembly of Tribes replaced the popular assembly. The
Assembly of Centuries represented the Roman Army and all the classes that were
included in it and they elected the consuls. The Assembly of Tribes was made up
of ten elected plebeians and spoke for the plebeians interests, but had little
influence on the government.


In 445 B.C, plebeians won the right to marry patricians. The Assembly
of Tribes gained the right to pass laws and veto any government action that
threatened the rights of the plebeians. By about 300 B.C., plebeians had earned
the right to hold all major political and religious posts. In 366 B.C., they
won the right to consulship. When Rome took over the control of an empire, the
discrimination between the classes became indistinct.


Julius Caesar was one of the many emperors that tried to bring the rich
and poor closer tothe poor by limiting the wealthy peoples’ land ownership.


During the early republic, the woman of Rome had few legal rights. A
male was always responsible for the care and support of the family’s women. The
question of women as heirs was irrelevant. Like all plebeians, even women
patricians could not vote or hold public office. They were usually married off
around the age of 14 to be housewives.


Even though women didn’t have many rights, thethe poor by limiting the
wealthy peoples’ land ownership.


During the early republic, the woman of Rome had few legal rights. A
male was always responsible for the care and support of the family’s women. The
question of women as heirs was irrelevant. Like all plebeians, even women
patricians could not vote or hold public office. They were usually married off
around the age of 14 to be housewives.


Even though women didn’t have man Rome, especially if their husbands or
fathers held public office. Examples of these women would be Messalina (wife of
emperor Claudius), Livia (second wife of Augustus), and Julia and Julia
(daughter of Augustus and granddaughter of Augustus).


During early Rome, the Merchants and artisans were included among the
common people. But, as the republic changed to an empire, it helped them out a
lot. With the empire expanding and the need to spread the Roman culture,
merchants and artisans became more important than ever. The artisans spread the
Roman culture by sending their many crafts and “masterpieces” to the newly
conquered lands. The merchants, with all of this new land under Roman power,
were free to trade along any route as Rome controlled most of them. Most of
this rising of the merchants and artisans status happened during the Pax Romana.

Grn Ron Rome, especially if their hu0Aclass and some rich merchants and artisans
joined the upper class.


At the bottom of all of the classes were the slaves and non-citizens.

Neither of them had very many rights. Slaves were usually prisoners of war from
countries that the Roman empire had taken over. They were used as gladiators
along with criminals (some freedmen did volunteer, though, for these “murderous
Games” also). In addition, slaves were used as actors in early Roman plays and
were owned by the managers who produced the plays. Some laws even specified
that only slaves might be tortured. But later, freemen could also be tortured
in cases of treason. It was the right of the master to offer his slaves for
torture in order to prove his own innocence or to discipline them. It was also
his right to free any slaves that he owned if they showed their honor to him in
a time of crisis, which he would have to prove. The right to torture slaves was
not removed in Roman law until in 240 A.D.


Many non-citizens were also treated as if they were slaves. They
usually were from some land conquered by the Romans, and were trying to make a
better life in one of the cities. Intermarriages among the citizens and non-
citizens of Rome were not allowed. The only way people were granted citizenship
was if someone of high power gaveure ure slaves was not removed in Roman law
until in 240 A.D.


Many non-citizens were also treated as if they were slaves. They
usually were from some land conquered by the Romans, and were trying to make a
better life in one of the cities. Intermarriages among the citizens and non-
citizens of Rome were not allowed. The only way people were granted citizenship
was if someone of high power gave it to them. Soon the lands surrounding Rome
under Roman Power were considered provinces of Rome, therefor the people that
lived in them werhe rights among the people of Rome through long and difficult
processes, became closer to equality. All of the social classes went through
individual changes. Some, like the patricians, lost more in the end than what
they started out with. Others, like non-citizens gained more rights with laws
that affected them. Overall, they each were effected by the government of the
Roman empire.


BIBLIOGRAPHY
1) World History, Patterns of Civilization. New Jersey: Burton F. Beers, 1993
2) Grolier Electronic Publishing, Inc., 1993
3) The World Book Encyclopedia Chicago, London, Sydney, Toronto, 1985

The Tradegy of JUlius Caesar

I.In The Tragedy of Julius Caesar William Shakespeare proves that an individuals character flaws will ultimately cause his or her demise.


II.Caesars naivete and arrogance
A.He is a dreamer 716
B.Yet if my name were 721
C.Id rather tell thee 722
D.Caesar shall go 743
E.Cowards die 743
F.The gods do this 743
G.Have I in conquest 744
H.I must prevent thee 752
I.Constant as the north 753
III.Cassiuss evilness, greed, hastiness, nervousness
All fo these quotes are found in the tradegy of julius caesar the reader would be wse to lok in the book for more aditional quotes, and base his paper on how people in some degree cause their own deaths. weather it be ther love or parks and on ther stroll to a park they get hit by a car or it may be the fact that they are greedy and their dick invovlment in shady opperations h a s c a u s e d t h e i r u n t i m e l y deaths. There are countles examples of this throughout how history. this paper is not many words do I need very conclusive for I am not verygood, but this fuck you is give a sold idea to work from howdy there is a good possiability that the reader can draw a strong connection the the chaos theory. son las dias? nuevaes benero en el bano. the chaos theory states that everything is connect. for example because a buttefly flpped his or her fuck wings richard gear the gay actor had a pinao in brooklyn dropped on his head. i i evdent that peope enjoy the ice cream sandwhich frm time to time espicley whe it is injected i to their beards. its only factual that marvin gaye was a prphet in his onw right como estats? a good resource diary is the one method man. you wuld be wise to eat penut butter out of your neighbors ass hole. ys the answere si yea that am drunk and getting more and more as we speak. hahaha see the workd connectionbeing drawn to the sun from here tnas thatmkd ietoy for all of you r time mothae fuxcker s jhahah jfiekd eo
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music

Today in the television world, sitcoms are totally different from what it used to be, for example back in the day, people would have top rating TV shows, such as the Brady Bunch, I Love Lucy, The Partridge Family, and basically shows that would have morals and lessons to give to the public. Now a days, shows that are most watched would be Sex in the City, The Sopranos, Will & Grace, and sitcoms that would have plots about sex, drugs, interracial conflict, and things that wouldnt be appropriate back in the past.

In the past, people loved watching TV while eating their dinner. They would have TV dinners and sit on the couch flipping the channels by the remote control. Now Since the popular shows are usually on after dinner, the viewers can just relax, go out to eat, take their time, and enjoy their meals. In the 1960s, nobody really cared for television, mostly because there werent many channels to choose from, but now we have so many options of channels to view, like the comedy channels, cartoon channels, nature channels, news channels, and sports channels.
The biggest change in television history is reality shows. There are so many shows to choose from. Every channel one switches to, there are reality sitcoms and games shows to watch. For example, the first reality based TV show, Real World, Survivor, Blind Date, Elimidate, Fear Factor, and the list goes on and on, all are shows that take people form the real world and put them in shows that we all can connect to. I believe producers created shows like this to have other people humiliate themselves. Shows such as the Real World, has people who act drunk, cheat on their loved ones, have wild sex, fight with one another, and plainly make people laugh at the stupid things they do. Shows like this, I believe give us more entertainment then shows like the Brady Bunch because shows from the past had less entertainment and more moral-thinking stories.

Like other things, the publics taste of what they find fascinating and boring has immensly changed. I think it is partly due to the current society. The story lines for these shows now have more to do with current events, whereas, in the past, everything was about morals and good versus bad. Television has greatly changed from when it was first started and I believe that most things have a positve change.

Joan Of Arc

On the night of the feast of the Epiphany (January 6th) at the end of the Christmas season, in the year 1412 during the final waning period of the relative peace secured by the Truce pf Leulinghen, a baby was born to Jacques Darc and his wife Isabelle in the village of Domremy. She was christened Jehanne (Joan) after her godmothers Jehanne Royer and Jehanne de Viteau. Her childhood was spent among the forests and strawberry- covered fields of the Meuse River valley, far from the northern regions where the political situation was becoming increasingly troubled.

Against the problems that were occurring around them, members of the Darc family continued to farm their 50-some acres of land near the Meuse. According to the Domremy villagers whom later testified to Jehannes childhood upbringing, she was a dutiful child who helped her parents with the chore along with her other siblings: her three older brothers Jacquemin, Jean, and Pierre, and her little sister Catherine. She was deeply devoted to God and the Blessed Virgin. She also loved the ringing of the church bells.
In 1414 her father rented the nearby Chateau de I’ll from a local aristocratic family to serve as a secure sanctuary for the villagers and their livestock. In 1420 when Jehanne was eight, the Treaty of Troyes granted Henry V eventual title to the kingdom of France and the hand of Catherine, daughter of King Charles. In 1422 Henry V and Charles VI died within two months of each other, leaving the infant Henry VI as the nominal King of France.

Around that time, perhaps in the summer of 1424, the young farm girl from Domremy said she began to experience visions. She would later explain: I was in my thirteenth year when I heard a voice from God to help me govern my conduct. And the first time I was very much afraid. And this voice came, about the hour of noon, in the summer time, in my fathers garden… A new chapter had begun for Jehanne and the various factions fighting for control of the Kingdom of France.

She believed that the voices came from God. She said the first of the voices were of Saint Michael. The voices told her two to three times a week that she must go away and that I must come to France; and my father knew nothing of my leaving. The voice told her that she should go to France and she could no longer stay where she was. It told her that she could raise the siege laid to the city of Orleans. The voice told her also that she should go to Robert de Baudricourt at the town of Vaucouleurs, who was the captain of the said town, and he would provide people to go with her.
Early in 1429, during the Hundred Years War, when the English were about to capture Orleans, the voices exhorted her to help the Dauphin, later Charles VII, King of France. Charles, because of both internal strife and the English claim to the throne of France, had not yet crowned king. Joan succeeded in convincing him that she had a divine mission to save France. A board of theologians approved her claims, and she was given troops to command. Dressed in armor and carrying a white banner that represented God blessing the French royal emblem, the fleur-de-lis, she led the French to a victory over the English. At the coronation of the Dauphin in the cathedral at Reims, she was given the place of honor beside the king.
Charles decided to send her to Poitiers, a little over 30 miles to the south of Chinton, to be questioned by a group of theologians who had relocated to the city.
Although Joan had united the French behind Charles and had put an end to English hopes of reign over France, Charles opposed any further campaigns against the English. Therefore, it was without royal support that Joan conducted in 1430 a military operation against the English at Compiegne, near Paris. She was captured by Burgundian soldiers, who sold her over to an ecclesiastical court at Rouen to be tried for heresy and sorcery. Joan was not an ordinary prisoner. The archer who had captured her knew he had to give her up to his under lord, who in turn gave her to his overlord, Jean de Luxemburg to hold her for prisoner. Joan even tried to commit suicide by throwing herself off of the tower she was locked in but she survived.
The University and the church only accepted those visionaries who had confided in and been approved by the church itself. Joan was thought to be a witch. She was kept in prison for seven months and in December, a few days before, Joan was taken by boat across the mouth of the Somme River to the city of Rouen where she was to stand trial.
There were many irregularities about Joans trial and imprisonment. Though she was to be tried by the Church, she was denied the right of being in church prison, where she would have better treatment. Even though the English considered her a prisoner of war, she was treated as a common criminal. And though the Church was going to try her, the English were going to pay for the trial.
By February 21 Cauchon was ready with his evidence against Joan. He had a long list of so-called crimes: wanton behavior, unseemly male dress, heretical beliefs, and from English and Burgundian sources, tales of her sorcery and witchcraft. The trial centered on Joans claim that she communicated with God through her saints. On March 17 the court adjourned to draw up articles of accusation in preparation for Joans indictment. On May 24 Joan was taken to a platform and threatened with execution. She recanted and was given the sentence of life in prison.
After 14 months of interrogation, she was accused of wrongdoing in wearing masculine dress and of heresy for believing she was directly responsible to God rather than to the Roman Catholic Church. Because she resumed masculine dress after returning to jail, she was condemned again, this time by a secular court and on May 30, 1431, Joan was burned at the stake in the Old Market Square at Rouen as a relapsed heretic.

Twenty- five years after her death, the church retried her case, and she was pronounced innocent. In 1920 she was canonized by Pope Benedict XV: her traditional feast day is May 30.

Though we dont know what she looked like, we know more about Joans character then about any other woman who lived before the modern age. And what we know comes largely from her own words in the trial that condemned her and from the people who knew and testified about her in the retrial that cleared her. The men who condemned her never would have dreamed how valuable her Trial Record would be to her. I fell as well as most people that the trial was her greatest challenge and showed her in a new kind of glory.

Joan has inspired more books than any other woman in history. Her fame is worldwide. There are many questions still unanswered about her though. She is spoke about in poetry, music, opera, drama, dance, and art. Most schoolchildren know who she is too.
I think of Joan as a very strong headed young girl dedicated to the Catholic religion of her countryside. I think that Joan was so sure that she was in touch with the supernatural, that it directed her whole life. Joan sincerely believed in the reality of the saints she could see. Yet I find her a very normal human being. She was a peasant girl and did have practiacl thoughts. Joans goal was heroic, to save her country and her King by fighting with courage and spirit.
The fact that Joan had to struggle to overcome some human weaknesses makes her, for me, all the greater as a human being, and makes her achievements all the more remarkable.



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Scarlet Letter And Scapegoats

In the novel, The Crucible, both scapegoats and vengeance play prominent roles.
Abigail Williams exhibits both these characteristics. She committed the greatest of crimes.
She destroyed the reputations of many and killed much of her surrounding society. Her
power lied in the fact that judges believed her, making all those women who fell victim to
her scapegoats. She is the one who triggers off a sense of hate in the play. She tempts
John Proctor into lechery, and to escape punishment for dancing, she deflects the actions
and blames them on someone else, and does not care how many lives she ruins. Later
when she grows into power and influence, she seems to enjoy sending these innocent
people to their deaths. Of course, the people she accuses are actually innocent, but she has
the ability to manipulate people into believing that she is doing good. Reverend Hale, the
witchcraft expert who initiates the problems in Salem, is positive about his belief that there
are witches and feels that he carrying out the desires of God himself. Yet, as the play
moves on, Hale notices that honest and good people are being sentenced and executed.
Abigail lied to get some backing on her accusations by accusing two of the worst
ladies in town of being witches, as well as the black slave from Barbados, Tituba. This was
very believable, as these women held no social rank among the town. Vengeance is a
quality that allows a person to want to seek revenge on another. This is typical of Abigail.
She wanted John Proctor, and to get him, she was rounding up accusations of Elizabeth,
his wife. Abigail was plotting to get Proctor, she was not just doing it out of the heat of
passion, she had it in for his wife. She thought that it was the only thing that stood in her
way. She was not going to stop until her death had been accomplished. Also in the play,
many other names of towns-women were called out, accusing them of being witches, only
for the fact that someone wanted to get revenge on them.
For the reasons I have described, the characters in The Crucible make and are
made scapegoats, out of vengeance and hatred for them.


English Essays