Neanderthal

The Neanderthals lived in areas ranging from Western Europe through central Asia from about 200,000 to between 36,000 and 24,000 years ago. The Neanderthals lived in groups of 30 to 50 individuals, they invented many of the tool types that were to be perfected by fully sapient peoples, they had weapons adequate to deal with both the cave lion and cave bear, they used body paint, buried their dead. Neanderthal Man survived through the Ice Age. They are thought to have had fire. Neanderthals lived side by side with modern humans for over 10,000 years.

There are many theories on why the Neanderthals disappeared. Most of them involve Homo Sapiens in one way or another, considering that the Neanderthal’s extinction coincides with the early human’s estimated arrival in Europe from their original home in Africa.
The first theory states that modern humans killed off the Neanderthals. With a much more sophisticated technology, Neanderthals would have had to compete with modern humans for their meals. This would have definitely led to fight with starvation and a decrease in the overall Neanderthal population, which could have been the cause of extinction. Also, in contrast to Cro-Magnons, who lived to well into there fifties, Neanderthals had a much shorter life span, barely surviving until the age of forty. The Neanderthals may have reacted to the new humans as enemies. Since the modern humans are presumed to have been smarter than the Neanderthals, and since modern humans are still alive today, this theory concludes that fighting wiped the Neanderthals out. However, this theory does have its faults. First of all, why would two cultures begin to fight after many thousands of years of peaceful coexistence? Also, it shows a lot of human arrogance to assume that early man could take an entire species that was stronger and almost as smart as them and fight it to extinction.
The second theory suggests that diseases introduced by the modern humans to whom Neanderthal man was not immune wiped out Neanderthals. It is possible that when Cro-Magnon man first encounter Neanderthal man, he could have introduced new devastating diseases, as the conquistadors did in Latin America. Neanderthals, not being immune to these illnesses would have quickly perished. However, it can also be considered that when the two human races met, war quickly followed. Cro-Magnon man may have possibly exterminated the Neanderthals. In early human history, man has fought his own race for years to justly claim or protect what he considers his. Although this theory is plausible, it is not probable, considering that the Neanderthals lived in close proximity to modern man for so long. Still, it is possible that there was a disease, which caused the Neanderthals to die out.
The last theory states that Neanderthals were not in fact a separate species, but interbred to a greater or lesser extent with the incoming Homo sapiens, whose genes eventually became dominant at the eventual expense of the genes delivering Neanderthal characteristics. This hypothesis comes from the fact that Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons inhabited the same regions of Europe for thousands of years. It is not beyond a doubt that they did come in contact with one another, possibly even trading and communicating.
Neanderthals and modern humans became one species, through thousands of years of interbreeding. Supporters of this theory state that some modern day Europeans have facial features similar to Neanderthal man. Neanderthal genes may have been inserted into the human gene pool, and Human genes may have been added to the Neanderthals. At this point, Neanderthals and humans may have evolved together at an incredible rate, becoming one race in a relatively short period of time. On the other hand, a disease, a war, or an increase in population causing the natural resources to be inadequate for keeping so many hominids alive might have cut off Neanderthals suddenly from contact with the humans, possibly.
In conclusion we may never be sure of the fate of the Neanderthals, until archaeological finds provide the evidence. However, they did have a human awareness for many things. Neanderthals were compassionate enough to bury their dead, care for their injured and ill, develop complex tools, create some form of ritual behavior, and communicate in some ways. It is this aspect of humanity, that was improved and carried on by their successors, Cro-Magnon man, who later dominated the world.

In the Upper Paleolithic period Neanderthal man disappears and is replaced by a variety of Homo sapiens such as Cro-Magnon-Man and Grimaldi man. This, the flowering of the Paleolithic period, we saw an astonishing number of human cultures, such as the Aurignacian, Gravettian, Perigordian, Solutrean, and Magdalenian, rise and develop in the Old World. The beginnings of communal hunting and extensive fishing are found here, as is the first conclusive evidence of belief systems centering on magic and the supernatural. Pit houses, the first man-made shelters, were built, sewn clothing was worn, and sculpture and painting originated. The Upper Paleolithic people had a greater variety of tools used for different seasons. Plus their art is an evident in the tools and weapons they made.
Their stone tools are finely worked, and they made a typical figure eight-shaped blade. They also used bone, horn, and ivory and made necklaces and other personal ornaments. They carved the so-called Venus figures, ritual statuettes of bone, and made outline drawings on cave walls. The hunters of the Solutrean phase of the Upper Paleolithic entered Europe from the east and ousted many of their Aurignacian predecessors. The Solutrean wrought extremely fine spearheads, shaped like a laurel leaf. The wild horse was their chief quarry. The Solutrean as well as remnants of the Aurignacian were replaced by the Magdalenian, the final, and perhaps most impressive, phase of the Paleolithic period. Here artifacts reflect a society made up of communities of fishermen and reindeer hunters. Surviving Magdalenian tools, which range from tiny microliths to implements of great length and fineness, indicate an advanced technique. Weapons were highly refined and varied, the atlatl (throwing stick used to give a spear greater propulsion) first came into use, and along the southern edge of the ice sheet boats and harpoons were developed. However, the crowning achievement of the Magdalenian was its cave paintings, the culmination of Paleolithic art.
After 13,000 BC more clement weather patterns resulted in the greater availability of food. In tropical and temperate forest regions, Paleolithic tools, still chipped, were adapted to the new conditions. This period is known as the Mesolithic, or Middle Stone Age. It began with the end of the last glacial period over 10,000 years ago and evolved into the Neolithic period; this change involved the gradual domestication of plants and animals and the formation of settled communities at various times and places.
Mesolithic cultures represent a wide variety of hunting, fishing, and food gathering techniques. This is a clear indication that human populations developed new and ingenious ways to catch and kill animals, while the same time they devoted more energy to fishing and the collection of wild plant foods. This variety may be the result of adaptations to changed ecological conditions associated with the retreat of glaciers, the growth of forests in Europe and deserts in N Africa, and the disappearance of the large game of the Ice Age. Characteristic of the period were hunting and fishing settlements along rivers and on lake shores, where fish and mollusks were abundant.
They lived as Fishers and Hunters and kept domesticated animals (oxen, goats and sheep) and made rough pottery. Pottery and the use of the bow were developed. This was the period where the hafted axes were improved and where bones and tools were found. The characteristic of Mesolithic tools was the Microliths , a small but hard, sharp blade. Such tools were given those humans the opportunity to clear the forests areas and can also be attached to arrow shaft by using melted resin as a binder. This tool also had allowed those humans to dig out canoes and skin-covered boats.

In conclusion, The Mesolithic Period is part of the upper Paleolithic. It was followed by the pre-pottery Neolithic era and represented a new phase of culture, characterized by the beginning of settled life.


Bibliography:
anthropology

Theory of evil

Evil, to some a sense of lacking goodness, or being justly immoral is a definition that has two significant meanings. The question that is posed before me is whether it can be “right to defend oneself against evil by doing evil”. The subject of this Essay is not the so-called definition of evil rather the, so unfortunately opposed argument to what an individual persons idea of what evil is. In class discussions about Socrates his philosophy was to lead a just life or merely good life by not committing any act against good. I believe that the question is a contradiction in itself. I myself try and live a just life through the theories of Socrates by choosing the good way. The reason the question is contradicting itself is because you can’t commit an evil act to protect yourself on the basis that it goes against good therefore being considered evil. The analogy “two wrongs don’t make a right” is somewhat factual; although evil and good is a bipolar neither can be greater in power over the other. An example could be an ordinary housewife takes an axe, and gave her husband forty whacks. Would the public forgive?Maybe the motive was that her husband had a history of destructive abuse by beating his wife. From a legal point of view she did a immoral act by taking the law into her own hands, yet could she be punished on the basis of in her mind she was giving him a moral punishment of evil. I have read in text that there are two types of evil “moral evil that it is product of evil from our own actions, non-moral evil as a product of chance or an act of god”. The verdict could come under intense scrutiny by the theories held by Socrates. I do not believe the verdict can ever be held as being neither an act of evil, or good; nevertheless I am absolutely certain on my presumption that she is guilty, because I am finite and the true reality is infinite, that I can never be absolutely certain of anything being absolutely true. I believe there is truth to her verdict, except I do not believe I, or anybody for that matter that will ever be certain of it.

In the text “Crito” recounts Socrates’ last days, immediately before his execution. As the text reveals, his friend Crito proposes to Socrates that he escape from prison. In a dialogue with Crito, Socrates considers the proposal, trying to establish whether an act like that would be just and morally justified. Eventually, he came to argue that by rejecting his sentence and by trying to escape from prison he would commit unjust and morally unjustified acts. Therefore, he decided to accept his death penalty and execution. In my argument about Socrates not escaping I believe he became an accomplice in injustice against himself by accepting unjust laws that he knew were immorally wrong. I can state the question: To who does the legal obligation to carry out verdicts refers? I do not think that it referred to the citizens of Athens, but only to judges, and other representatives of the legal and executive power. Since the majority of citizens did not have the right to participate in law, so the obligation to carry out verdicts could not refer to them. Since Socrates, as an ordinary citizen had a moral obligation to respect the laws of Athens by a social agreement held morally. He had not obliged himself to carry out verdicts; he was not obliged to respect unjust verdicts. He had only to respect just verdicts, because otherwise he would have broken the law to which he had obliged himself.

In my personal opinion I stand with my argument that it can never be right to choose an evil action to defend against evil in itself. Although I believe there are loopholes to that question as I explained in the text that if an act done against an individual that is unjust should come to scrutiny. At times I feel that an evil act can appear to be good in nature, yet when moral weight is added to the idea it’s foundation crumbles under questioning of that particular idea.
Men fear death, as if unquestionably the greatest evil, and yet no man knows that it may not be the greatest good. “William Mitford”

Violence Against Women In Intimate Relationships

Violence Against Women in Intimate Relationships
Domestic violence is a conscious behavior in which acts of violence and aggression are carried out by one person in a relationship to dominate the other. This violence consists of deliberate verbal, sexual, emotional, psychological, and physical abuse, along with social and economic deprivation. Statistics and studies show victims of domestic violence are mostly women and their children, but men are victims as well. Friends, spouses, boyfriends, girlfriends, and even family members are capable of demonstrating domestic violence. This widespread practice negatively affects gay, lesbian, bisexual, and straight individuals of all ages, cultures, and social backgrounds.
Violent and abusive relationships are often problematic for many women to escape, and it is sad to see that these women must undergo additional setbacks including race and class struggles. The specific issues that contribute to the difficulty of leaving an abusive partner include economic and financial instability, child custody issues, language barriers, and lack of ethnically sensitive services. Girlfriends and wives who are dependent upon their abusive partner’s income have a harder time escaping the abuse, because they do not have money to support themselves independently. If the woman has a child with her partner, this poses an even more difficult situation because she would have to consider the child’s needs. In result, if the woman has no one else to turn to, she must stay and suffer the abusive environment. Wen Lin and Imm Tan’s essay “Holding Up More Than Half the Heavens,” addresses the lack of multicultural and multilingual services for battered Asian Pacific American women. “In the entire United States, only two shelters exist for Asian Pacific American women” (Wen Lin and Imm Tan, 464). Their essay brings to light the issue of who is taken into women’s shelters and who is turned away. Women of different cultures who cannot speak English are the individuals being deprived of shelter services often “because of language and cultural difficulties or sheer racism” (Wen Lin and Imm Tan, 464). “The language barrier, in effect, shuts out most refugee and immigrant women” (Wen Lin and Imm Tan, 464). Shelters are these women’s last hope, and once they are refused help, they must return to violence in their homes once again. As you can imagine, the men will most likely be furious upon their return, giving way to more beatings and emotional abuse. These women will remain silenced and unable to escape because “of the domestic violence resources availablefew have staff who speak Asian Pacific languages” (Wen Lin and Imm Tan, 464).
The abuse and violence experienced in the homes of battered women and children produce many psychological effects. The environment in which they live is neither supportive nor consoling. Del Martin’s “A Letter From A Battered Wife”, reveals a battered mother’s feeling of shame, hysteria, and helplessness. In her letter, she writes, “No one wants to take in a woman with four childrenno one wants to become involved ina domestic situation” (Martin, 454). This woman and thousands other battered women, feel that there is no one to turn to. The mentality of “no one understands or cares” drives battered women mad. “Hysteria inevitably sets in after a beatingthe shaking and crying and mumbling is not accepted by anyone, so there has never been anyone to call” (Martin, 454). Low self-esteem and loss of identity are also amongst psychological effects experienced by battered women. In Latina Anonima’s “La Princesa”, she looks back at an abusive relationship in her early college years and states, “I do not identify, much less connect, with the experiences I’ve just recounted. It’s as if they belong to someone else” (464). Women in violent relationships are forced to become someone they’re not, and perform acts they do not identify with. This is what shocks them most when they look back at their experiences.
Let us not forget another major group of individuals equally affected by domestic violence, children. At young ages, some children are exposed to domestic violence in their homes, in which potentially harmful psychological effects develop. Loss of identity, intense fear, need for approval, and blaming one’s self are some effects that can develop in adolescence. Since they are of young age, these effects can be carried with them well into their future and cause problems in adulthood. “Countdown”, written by Lanette Fisher-Hertz, is the story of a young girl named Cassie, whose mother is in a relationship with an abusive man. During the course of her mother’s relationship, Cassie loses her sense of identity. As a child, it is natural to play with friends, have fun, and laugh. Cassie is not able to make friends and play because she is constantly stuck inside the apartment with her mother. Although Crew, her mother’s boyfriend, was violent at times, he still had “good days” and Cassie loved him. Cassie did things that she knew would not provoke him, and when she pleased him, she received recognition. She brought him ice-cold beers and felt special “when she’d seen Crew smile and relaxas she waved her arms up and down in front of him” (Fisher-Hertz, 458). Cassie lived for Crew’s approval. One day, Cassie’s mother asks her to watch over dinner, but she decides to go outside and play. As Cassie yells in excitement to kids playing across the street, a car hits her. When the ambulance arrives, the first thing she says is “Please don’t tell, can someone check the dinner? I’m supposed to be watching it” (Fisher-Hertz, 458). Even after being hit by a car, this child is worried about her mother and her boyfriend. This is an example of a child being too consumed with failure and approval. At such a young age, they should not have to experience such a lifestyle. The child almost feels that their failure is responsible for the violence. Seeking approval can cause problems for children in adulthood because they will grow up living for others and not themselves.

Ann Jones’ essay titled “Battering: Who’s Going to Stop It?” provides a series of answers as to how women can be freed from domestic violence, and in addition, what and who is responsible for this freeing. She first acknowledges the efforts of domestic violence survivors stating, “Never before in history has there been such an organization of crime victims to rescue other victims and prevent further crimes” (Jones, 452). Jones encourages victims to share their stories to continuously provide other battered women with strength to speak out as well. Jones also gives credit to shelters because “they have provided safe havenfor millions of women and their childrenthey have saved thousands of lives” (Jones, 452). She then calls upon the Violence Against Women Act of 1994 and The Battered Women’s Movement, which has aided in freeing women from the violence by bringing “battering out of the private household and into the spotlight of public debate” (Jones, 452). Lastly, Jones expresses the necessity of a national campaign “to go after men at faultand send them to jail” (Jones, 452).

After reading the essays on “Violence Against Women in Intimate Relationships,” pp.447-467, I now know the ways in which I can take an active role in fighting to free women from domestic violence. “Domestic Violence “is not an isolated issue. It is not a private family affair” (Wan Lin and Imm Tan, 466). This is what battered women need to know. If they remain silenced, they will remain at the hands of their abuser and possibly risk their life along with their children’s lives. We can help women escape domestic violence in many ways, starting with encouraging them to speak out and report cases of abuse and assault. Indeed, it is challenging to help a battered woman who fears her partner will find out that she is getting help, but we can reassure her and safely provide counseling and shelter. However, in order for this to happen, more shelters and organizations must be established. More volunteers are needed which is where many of us can help. Multilingual centers, programs, and shelters are also a necessity because thousands of women who cannot speak English are without help. Domestic Violence does not affect one specific race; it affects individuals of all cultures and ethnicities. Therefore, the services provided for battered women must serve all cultures as well. In doing so, thousands of more lives can be saved. If we speak a different language, we can look into organizations that may be looking for volunteer translators to help speak to non-English speaking women. I also feel that teenage girls should be offered an awareness program to educate them on early signs of violent and unhealthy relationships. This may help them avoid a potentially abusive relationship. Programs can also provide battered women with tips on how to prosecute an abuser because if arrests are made, “prosecutors commonly fail to prosecuteamong assaulted men arrestedless than 1 percent (0.9 percent) served any time in jail”(Jones, 452). Any effort to speak out about domestic violence, pass out flyers, or broadcast commercials will help women get out of the darkness. We must all rise up and help domestic violence victims realize that they do have rights and there is a way out.
Works Cited
Anonima, Latina., “La Princesa.” Kesselman, McNair, and Nancy Schneidwind, eds. Women: Images and Realities, a Multicultural Anthology. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Fisher-Hertz, Lanette., “Countdown.” Kesselman, McNair, and Nancy Schneidwind, eds. Women: Images and Realities, a Multicultural Anthology. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Imm Tan, Cheng., and Margareta Wan Lin., “Holding Up More Than Half the Heavens.” Kesselman,
McNair, and Nancy Schneidwind, eds. Women: Images and Realities, a Multicultural Anthology.
3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Jones, Ann., “Battering: Who’s Going to Stop It?” Kesselman, McNair, and Nancy Schneidwind eds. Women: Images and Realities, a Multicultural Anthology. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Kesselman, McNair, and Nancy Schneidwind, eds. Women: Images and Realities, a Multicultural Anthology.

3rd ed. New York: McGraw- Hill, 2003.

Martin, Del., “A Letter From a Battered Wife.” Kesselman, McNair, and Nancy Schneidwind, eds.
Women: Images and Realities, a Multicultural Anthology. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Despotism and Machavellian Theory

Despotism and Machiavellian Theory are similar ideologies in that both refer to forms of government where a sole ruler uses adequate and consequential power to deal with the governed body of people. In a despotism, though the ruler has unlimited power, he is not necessarily harsh or cruel to the people. Infact, he may be kindly and considerate and may even put the welfare of the people above his own wishes. But usually, despots do not feel bound by the preferences of their subjects, and they sometimes use force to maintain power. Likewise, Machiavelli viewed the state as an organism with its ruler as the head and its people as the body. He maintained that a healthy state is unified, orderly, and in balance, and that its people have happiness, honor, strength, and security. However, an unhealthy state is disorderly and unbalanced, and may require strong measures to restore it to normal. Machiavelli called for a leader to use any means necessary to preserve the state, resorting to cruelty, deception, and force, if nothing else worked. As a result many people thought he supported the use of cruelty and deceit in politics.


Bibliography:
World Book Encyclopedia Vol.5,13 (1992)

Death Penalty – Herrera vs Collins

The Supreme Court addressed the constitutionality of executing someone who claimed actual innocence in Herrera v. Collins (506 U.S. 390 (1993)). Although the Court left open the possibility that the Constitution bars the execution of someone who conclusively demonstrates that he or she is actually innocent, the Court noted that such cases would be very rare. The Court held that, in the absence of other constitutional violations, new evidence of innocence is no reason for federal courts to order a new trial. The Court also held that an innocent inmate could seek to prevent his execution through the clemency process, which, historically, has been “the ‘fail safe’ in our justice system.” Herrera was not granted clemency, and was executed in 1993..
Since Herrera, concern regarding the possibility of executing the innocent has grown. Currently, more than 80 death row inmates have been released because of innocence since 1973. In November, 1998 Northwestern University held the first-ever National Conference on Wrongful Convictions and the Death Penalty, in Chicago, Illinois. The Conference, which drew nationwide attention, brought together 30 of these wrongfully convicted inmates who were exonerated and released from death row. Many of these cases were discovered not as the result of the justice system, but instead as the result of new scientific techniques, investigations by journalism students, and the work of volunteer attorneys. These resources are not available to the typical death row inmate.
Public Support
Support for the death penalty has fluctuated throughout the century. According to Gallup surveys, in 1936 61% of Americans favored the death penalty for persons convicted of murder. Support reached an all-time low of 42% in 1966. Throughout the 70s and 80s, the percentage of Americans in favor of the death penalty increased steadily, culminating in an 80% approval rating in 1994. Since 1994, support for the death penalty has again declined. Today, 66% of Americans support the death penalty in theory. However, public support for the death penalty drops to around 50 % when voters are offered the alternative of life without parole. (See also, DPIC’s report, Sentencing for Life: American’s Embrace Alternatives to the Death Penatly)
Religion
In the 1970s, the National Association of Evangelicals (NAE), representing more then 10 million conservative Christians and 47 denominations, and the Moral Majority, were among the Christian groups supporting the death penalty. NAE’s successor, the Christian Coalition, also supports the death penalty. Today, Fundamentalist and Pentecostal churches as well as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) support the death penalty, typically on biblical grounds, specifically citing the Old Testament. (Bedau, 1997).
Although traditionally also a supporter of capital punishment, the Roman Catholic Church now oppose the death penalty. In addition, most Protestant denominations, including Baptists, Episcopalians, Lutherans, Methodists, Presbyterians, and the United Church of Christ, oppose the death penalty. During the 1960s, religious activists worked to abolish the death penalty, and continue to do so today.
In recent years, and in the wake of a recent appeal by Pope John Paul II to end the death penalty, religious organizations around the nation have issued statements opposing the death penalty. Complete texts of many of these statements can be found at www.envisioning.org.


Women
Women have, historically, not been subject to the death penalty at the same rates as men. From the first woman executed in the U.S., Jane Champion, who was hanged in James City, Virginia in 1632, to the 1998 executions of Karla Faye Tucker in Texas and Judi Buenoano in Florida, women have constituted only 3% of U.S. executions. In fact, only four women have been executed in the post-Gregg era. In addition to Karla Faye Tucker and Judi Buenoano, Velma Barfield was executed in North Carolina in 1984 and Betty Lou Beets was executed in Texas in February, 2000. (O’Shea, 1999, with updates by DPIC)
Recent Developments in Capital Punishment
The Federal Death Penalty
In addition to the death penalty laws in many states, the federal government has also employed capital punishment for certain federal offenses, such as murder of a government official, kidnapping resulting in death, running a large-scale drug enterprise, and treason. When the Supreme Court struck down state death penalty statutes in Furman, the federal death penalty statutes suffered from the same conitutional infirmities that the state statutes did. As a result, death sentences under the old federal death penalty statutes have not been upheld.
In 1988, a new federal death penalty statute was enacted for murder in the course of a drug-kingpin conspiracy. The statute was modeled on the post-Gregg statutes that the Supreme Court has approved. Since its enactment, 6 people have been sentenced to death for violating this law, though none has been executed.
In 1994, President Clinton signed the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act that expanded the federal death penalty to some 60 crimes, 3 of which do not involve murder. The exceptions are espionage, treason, and drug trafficking in large amounts.
Two years later, in response to the Oklahoma City Bombing, President Clinton signed the Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996. The Act, which affects both state and federal prisoners, restricts review in federal courts by establishing tighter filing deadlines, limiting the opportunity for evidentiary hearings, and ordinarily allowing only a single habeas corpus filing in federal court. Proponents of the death penalty argue that this streamlining will speed up the death penalty process and significantly reduce its cost, although others fear that quicker, more limited federal review may increase the risk of executing innocent defendants. (Bohm, 1999 and Schabas, 1997)
International Abolition
In the 1980s the international abolition movement gained momentum and treaties proclaiming abolition were drafted and ratified. Protocol No. 6 to the European Convention on Human Rights and its successors, the Inter-American Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights to Abolish the Death Penalty, and the United Nation’s Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, were created with the goal of making abolition of the death penalty an international norm.


Today, the Council of Europe requires new members to undertake and ratify Protocol No. 6. This has, in effect, led to the abolition of the death penalty in Eastern Europe. For example, the Ukraine, formerly one of the world’s leaders in executions, has now halted the death penalty and has been admitted to the Council. South Africa’s parliament voted to formally abolish the death penalty, which had earlier been declared unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court. In addition, Russian President, Boris Yeltsin, signed a decree commuting the death sentence for all of the convicts on Russia’s death row, in June 1999. (Amnesty International and Schabas, 1997)
The Death Penalty Today
In April 1999, the United Nations Human Rights Commission passed the Resolution Supporting Worldwide Moratorium On Executions. The resolution calls on countries which have not abolished the death penalty to restrict its use of the death penalty, including not imposing it on juvenile offenders and limiting the number of offenses for which it can be imposed. Ten countries, including the United States, China, Pakistan, Rwanda and Sudan voted against the resolution. (New York Times, 4/29/99)
Presently, more than half of the countries in the international community have abolished the death penalty completely, de facto, or for ordinary crimes. However, over 90 countries retain the death penalty, including China, Iran, and the United States, all of which rank among the highest for international executions in 1998. (Amnesty International, 1999)
Return to Index
Return to Part I
——————————————————————————–
Sources
Amnesty International, “List of Abolitionist and Retentionist Countries,” Report ACT 50/01/99, April 1999
D. Baker: “A Descriptive Profile and Socio-Historical Analysis of Female Executions in the United States: 1632-1997?; 10(3) Women and Criminal Justice 57 (1999)
R. Bohm, “Deathquest: An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Capital Punishment in the United States,” Anderson Publishing, 1999.


“The Death Penalty in America: Current Controversies,” H. Bedau, editor, Oxford University Press, 1997.


K. O’Shea, “Women and the Death Penalty in the United States, 1900-1998,” Praeger 1999.


W. Schabas “The Abolition of the Death Penalty in International Law,” Cambridge University Press, second edition, 1997.


“Society’s Final Solution: A History and Discussion of the Death Penalty,” L. Randa, editor, University Press of America, 1997.


V. Streib, “Death Penalty For Female Offenders

Geopolitics

Geopolitics is the applied study of the relationships of geographical space to politics. Geopolitics, therefore, concerned with the reciprocal impact of spatial patterns, features, and structures and political ideas, institutions, and transactions. The term ‘Geopolitics’ has originally invented, in 1899, by a Swedish political scientist, Rudolf Kjellen and its original meaning is to signify a general concern with geography and politics. However, defining the concept of ‘geopolitics’ itself is a considerably difficult task because definition of geopolitics tends to changes as historical periods of time and structures of world order change. Therefore, there have been numerous ways of interpreting the term and arguments on them all through the history. In this essay, I intend to examine how geopolitics has influenced on international relations and how it has evolved using well-known geopoliticians’ theories in a chronological order: Imperialist, Cold War, and New World Order.

In early 20th century, geopolitics was a form of power or knowledge concerned with promoting states expansionism and securing empires. It was a time characterized by colonial expansionism abroad and industrial modernization at home. This is also the time when natural supremacy of a certain race or the state has considerably prevailed. The most historically and geographically fated imperialist rivalry of the period was that of between British Empire and the rising imperial aspirations of the German state in Europe. In order to investigate the geopolitical tension between them, the geopolitical writings of the British geographer Halford Mackinder and of the German geopolitician Karl Haushofer have to be thoroughly examined. In addition, it is also needed to examine the view of the far side across the Atlantic, the United States that emerged as a significant player on world’s stage later on.
First of all, the starting point for almost all discussions of geopolitics is Sir Halford Mackinder, a member of the British Parliament who wrote “The Geographic Pivot of History” in 1904. He addressed the importance in the history of geopolitics for three reasons in his work; for its god’s eye global view; for its division of the globe into vast swaths of history, and for its sweeping story of geography’s conditioning influence on the course of history and politics.

First, he argues that “Geopolitics is a new way of seeing international politics as a unified worldwide scene” and adopts a god’s eye global view which looks down on what he calls “the stage of the whole world”:
For the first time we can perceive something of the real proportion of features and events on the stage of the whole world and may seek a formula which shall express certain aspects, at any rate, of geographical causation in history.

In this sentence, ‘we’ implies the geopolitical experts, educated and privileged white men who can perceive the real political features. This sentence shows all the basic elements of imperialist geopolitics, such as the divine eye gaze on the world, only experts can perceive the real and the desire to reveal laws to explain all of history. However, this view has been criticized for the reason that imperialists only see within the structures of meaning provided by their socialization into certain backgrounds, intellectual contexts and political culture and beliefs.
Second, he suggests the map of “The Natural Seats of Power”. To illustrate his thesis geographically, Mackinder labels enormous tracts of territory with simple identities like “pivot area.” He eliminates the tremendous geographical diversity and specificity of places on earth. Difference becomes sameness. Geographical heterogeneity becomes geopolitical homogeneity.
Third, he argues “the geographical causation of history” in the application of the sweeping theory. At the centre of this theory shows the relationship between physical geography and transportation technology. Until the end of nineteenth century, sea power was the supreme, but by then, railroads were making it possible to move large armies quickly over vast land areas. Mackinder wanted his government, which had achieved glory as a sea power, to be prepared for the rise of a land power, obviously Germany at that time. In his famous “heartland theory”, he renamed Euro-Asia, “the world island” and the “pivot area”, “the heartland”.

Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland; Who rules the Heartland commands the world island; Who rules the world island commands the world.

According to his simple strategic argument, what must be prevented is German expansionism in Eastern Europe and a German alliance with the Soviet Union for the time. In spite of his effort, his idea had a little impact on British foreign policy. The reason is said that his way of interpreting human history is too simplistic and far geographically deterministic, and he failed to aware of the emergence of revolutionary air power in 20th century led by mostly the United States. He underestimated the power of the United States while he overestimated the vast spaces of Russian “heart land.”
By 1904, the United States had emerged as a significant player in international relations. They started expanding their territories with strategic naval forces. Admiral Alfred Mahan who announced sea power doctrine, which stressed the significance of overseas naval bases. He argued in an institutionally self-serving way that the path to national greatness lay in commercial and naval expansionism. All truly great powers were naval powers. It is not necessary to acquire all territories and formally occupy them; what the Unite States needed was an informal empire based on “open door” trade and a string of overseas naval bases that would give its navy the ability to protect power in a troublesome region whenever it needed to do so.
To back up this view in a concrete sense, Theodore Roosevelt applied social Darwinian ideology. He emphasized that all the races are in a struggle for survival and only the fittest and the strongest can survive. He wrote ” there is no place in the world for nations who have become enervated by soft and easy life, or who have lost their fibre of vigorous hardiness and manliness.” Along with his view, the most civilized and superior state in the world, the United States had a right to exercise an international power in the region to keep troublesome and, namely, uncivilized states.

In Germany, a former military officer Karl von Haushofer, who was anxious to avenge Germany’s post-World War I humiliations and rebuild the German empire, advocated a strong nationalistic imperialist geopolitics. Like many of veterans of World War II, he had a deep hatred of the peace treaty, the Treaty of Versailles, which took away Germany’s colonies and part of its national territories after the war. After the Treaty, he believed that Germany’s need for Lebensraum (living space) was greater than ever.
Haushofer’s crusade to overthrow the Treaty of Versailles led him to found the journal Zeitschrift fur Geopolitik in 1924. This journal helped Haushofer create a new school of geography. Mixing the social Darwinist ideas and the ideas of Mackinder, he attempted to reduce the complexity of International relations. In order to survive, according to Haushofer, the German state must achieve Lebensraum. The best way of achieving is for Germany to develop alliance with the heartland power, the Soviet Union. Furthermore, he argued that Germany should align with Japan and create “maritime-continental” block, stretching from Germany throughout Russia to Japan.

In “why geopolitik”, he claims that the reason Germany lost World War I was because its leader did not study geopolitics. He said that geopolitics is the study of the “earth-boundedness” of political processes and institutions. Like Mackinder, he attributes special power to the god-like geopolitician, treating geopolitics as a faith that offers divine revelations. His persistent emphasis on the need for geopolitical education is nothing more than a legitimation for the right-wing militarist foreign policy.

Haushofer’s acknowledgement led to a militarist and nationalistic version of Nazi regime that produced a murderous and brutal war in the 20th century. Furthermore, his ideas justified the practice of many chauvinist, racist, imperialist ideologies. However, geopolitics did not disappear after World War II and the fall of Nazi Germany. All these views of imperialist geopolitics gave way to a newly emergent Cold War geopolitics.

Questions of geography were always deeply indicated in the Cold War that developedbetween the United States and the Soviet Union after World War II. After the war, bipolar system has been clearly formed. The Cold War is a political structure based upon two contrary relations between the superpowers-opposition and dependence. Theories of opposition are concerned the Cold War as either the result of the Soviet threat or an outcome of US imperialism. In either case, the conflict implies the one between communism and capitalism. The Cold War created the term ‘Third World’ and the division of space into a First World of capitalist states, a Second World of communist states, and a Third World of developing states. This also reflects the North-South issues of massive global material inequality.

The Truman Doctrine is the first significant statement of American Cold War geopolitics. Like the imperialists geopoliticians, Truman adopts a god’s eye globe view and uses simple and abstract categories of “the free world” and “the enslaved world”, which is black and white reasoning. This geographical map became the geographical monochrome of good vs. evil, capitalism vs. communism, the West vs. the East, and the US vs. the Soviet Union. These simplistic reasoning has drawn the domino theory. Truman’s Secretary of State, Dean Acheson, explained before Congress that like:
Apples in a barrel infected by one rotten one, the corruption of Greece would infect Iran and all to the east. It would also carry infection to Africa through Asia Minor and Egypt, and to Europe through Italy, France, already threatened by the strongest domestic Communist parties in Western Europe (Acheson, 1969).
Presenting “apples in a barrel” is a mark of excessive pride in the American intellectuals of statecraft with the Truman administration. Thus when Truman declares in his speech that it is “necessary only to glance at a map,” the map he has in his mind is one where states are equivalent to dominoes about to fall. Only physical proximity is seen as geography and nothing else.
The geopolitical order made by the American after World War II was geographically more extensive than the Soviet order. Domestic politics with the US was characterized by containment militarism, which was set by exaggerated view of the Soviet threat. This mainly facilitated the creation and expansion of a national security state and a confinement of US political culture. Through exaggeration of the Soviet threat, American intellectuals of statecraft attempted to transform the US stance from a reluctant isolationist power to a crusading interventionist power, which promoted an open world economy and safeguarding the free enterprise system.

In addition, the US ought to establish for itself the freedom, in the space called the “Third World” to intervene and attack peoples and states that have been considered a threat to a view of American values and economic interests. After World War II, this tendency led the US security state to intervene in the domestic politics of many states, for example, Iran in 1953, Guatemala in 1956 and Chile in 1973. The US also got massively involved militarily in a number of regions and fought bloody wars in Korea and Vietnam among other places against what it perceived as a threat of worldwide communist.

The geopolitical order established by the Soviet Union in the wake of World War II was largely confined to Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Just like the US built a huge military complex to support its national security, so did the Soviet Union that its state structure became even more militarised than that of the US. The Soviet geopolitical order was set by the maintenance of a system extended deterrence in Eastern Europe by ruling communist elites and military structure of the Warsaw Pact organization. Because it did not have the resources and wealth of the capitalist West, the Soviet Union intervened erratically in the Third world such as a few radical states like North Korea, Vietnam and Cuba, to compete its counterpart, the capitalist West.

Europe was the principal place where both contending geopolitical orders confronted each other and the site of its greatest militarization. However, ironically both superpowers came to share a mutual interest in the Cold War as a system because they convinced their mutual positions on the European continent. COX (1990) notes:
The Cold War served the interests of both the USSR and the US. For this reason neither sought to alter the nature of the relationship once it had been established. Their goal, therefore, was not so much victory over the other as the maintenance of balance. In this sense, the Cold War was more of a carefully controlled game with commonly agreed rules than a contest where there could be clear winners and losers.

The new breed of communist politician who came to power was Mikhail Gorbachev. He launched a policy of glasnost (openness) in Soviet society in 1986 and envisioned perestroika (restructuring and renewal) of the USSR based on modernized and humane communist principles. His new political thinking helped bring about the end of the Cold War. Gorbachev’s policy for arms reductions and his refusal to intervene to save communist dictatorships in Eastern Europe resulted in the fall of Berlin Wall and the beginning of the end of the Cold War in Europe at last. Furthermore, the geographical consequence of his new policies provoked a counter-reaction by hard-liners within the Soviet military-industrial complex in 1991, an attempted coup whose failure spiralled into the consequent dissolution of the USSR and the fitful emergence of the “new world order” of the 1990s.
The end of the Cold War allowed the emergence of a new geopolitical order dominated by geo-economic questions and issues, a world where the globalization of economic activity and global flows of trade, investment and images are re-making states, sovereignty and the geographical structure of the world. The existence of one of the superpowers, the Soviet Union completely disappeared from the world scene. The end of Cold War effectively left the US as the sole remaining superpower. President George Bush declared a ‘new world order’ during the Gulf War and it was a way of achieving the national exceptionism of the US. He believed that American’s interests were universal interests for everyone.

In practical term, the new world order for Bush was a world where the United States, in alliance with those who were willing to follow, did not ordering. Any change in the status quo geopolitical order unfavourable to the US and the interests of “the West”, such as Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, was considered unlawful aggression that “would not stand.” On the contrary, any change in geopolitics initiated by the US, for example, the US invasion of Panama was acceptable and can be justified.

Many of geopoliticians argue that geopolitic in the post Cold War era can be explained as geo-economics. Focusing greatly on the economic ability of the state, Japan has emerged as most likely hegemonic contender at the time. What makes Japan look so good as successor in this sort of environments is that its economic prowess is not prevented by any military commitments. However, it is possible to interpret Japan as the antithesis of the USSR, another mammoth mismatch between economic and political power but the other way around. Although by no means likely to suffer the same fate as the Soviet Union, Japan’s weaknesses have been exposed by the post-cold war situation as for instance their failure to contribute physically to the Gulf War in 1991. There is much less talk now of Japan as a future world leader.
For some of the environmentally minded intellectual and policy maker, the new geopolitics is not geo-economics but ecological politics or ‘ecopolitics.’ Because the relationship of politics to the earth became more important than ever as state and people struggle to deal with environmental degradation, resource depletion, transnational pollution and global warming. In many cases, the owners of the land are not the same people as those who traditionally used it before development and imposed a very different understanding of the environment and the appropriate ways of using it. It also tends to be occupied by the state with power for their interests.

Like this, the variable and processes in geopolitics differ from international environments and times they get involved. Besides, not only economic and environmental issues, but also the perspectives of race, culture and ethno-minorities came up with a considerable attention in geopolitics. Therefore, as the power of the world and the interests of them changes, new roles and new actors in international context emerge incessantly.

The early geopoliticians had emphasis on the sheer friction of distance and the buffering function of space, the value of which were evaluated in terms of military technology at that time. However, the technological revolutions over the period of time have produced the variables and tools of power. For example, economic and environmental variables and technological developments have already started altering the ways of assessing distance, space, influence and power.

However, it is important to note how dependent on historical context the evolution and application of the modern geopolitical assumption have been. Whatever the outcome of the period, the awareness of historical dependence remains strong. That is why the question of the current geopolitical understandings for the future has to be solved with examining the geopolitics of the past.
It also seems certain that there are perceptible differences to interpret the concept of ‘Geopolitics’ in historical and contemporary perspectives because it has been changing along with changing historical conditions. However, it is also possible to find some common denominators of geopolitical assumption of geopolitics, such as universality of national interests, the centralization of the state like Mackinder’s “pivot theory”, the reasoning of intervention and so on, all through the history. The ways to achieve tend to vary in accordance with prevailing issues and the interests of the power state at the time.

To conclude, it can be said that the main purpose of each state’s geopolitics has been achieving power and maintaining the stance with power in international context. Although the history produced many contending perspectives on geopolitics that seemed to be merely an adaptation to newly emerged issues to keep pace with a rapid radical change. Thus it seems hazardous to assess ‘Geopolitics’ in a facing contemporary context without considering how it has been evolved. Geopolitics is not only a way of interpreting current geopolitical realities but also an evolutionary process, which constantly reflects the whole picture in a wider historical context.


Bibliography:
Bibliography
1. O Ttathail, Gearoid, Dalby, Simon and Routledge, Paul.

The Geopolitics: Reader. Routledge (1998)
2. Demko, George and Wood, William B.

Reordering the World: geopolitical perspectives on the 21st century.

Westview Press (1994)
3. Taylor, Peter.

Political Geography: world economy, nation-state and locality.

Longman Scientific ; Technical (1993)
4. Agnew, John.

Geopolitics: re-visioning world politics.

Routledge (1998)

Streetcar Named Desire

Why Can’t Blanche and Stanley Just Get Along?
In A Streetcar Named Desire, Tennessee Williams uses astrology and character names to further define the two main characters, Blanche and Stanley. Blanche is a Virgo, whereas Stanley is a Capricorn. Both have very different characteristics, which cannot blend with one another. It is evident that Blanche and Stanley alienate each other further because of their astrological signs; Virgos are more sensitive while Capricorns are more realistic.
Throughout the play, Blanche expresses positive aspects that are described by her astrological sign (Virgo). A Virgo “is intellectual, critical, fussy, shrewd, logical, methodical, practical, and has teaching ability. They can lack confidence and need constant reassurance” (Signs In Detail: Virgo). This coincides with Blanche because she used to be an English teacher but was fired. Furthermore, when first entering the apartment she acts in a very critical manner; “Oh, I’m not going to be hypocritical, I’m going to be honestly critical about it… Only Mr. Edgar Allan Poe! – Could do it justice… Why didn’t you tell me… that you had to live in these conditions” (Williams 20). Blanche is also a character that always needs reassurance about her looks. She mentions to her sister, Stella, that she hasn’t put on an ounce in ten years and asks about her appearance. However, then she criticizes her sister by telling her to watch her hips and maybe do something with her hair, not knowing that Stella is pregnant. Blanche can be described as the ‘perfect’ Virgo if compared to its traditional traits.

Blanche also conveys some negative aspects of the sign Virgo. She is a character who does not show her age, another Virgo rule. In her living area, the light is made dim and before leaving the house, she applies makeup to hide her age. The Chinese paper lantern may represent her concealment. Another characteristic is that she “desires wealth but is not able to acquire it easily” (Virgo). An example of this trait is seen when Blanche makes up a story about her rich friend who will support a shop for her and Stella. This can also prove that Blanche lives in a superficial world, “her predisposition to gloss over the harsh realities of life by pretending that they are simply not there” (Cardullo). She is a perfectionist and loses trust in others and herself if anything occurs, such as when “she refuses … to forgive herself for denying Allan the compassion that would have saved and perhaps changed him, or at any rate made his burden easier to bear” (Cardullo). Blanche suggests that she is jealous of Stan and Stella; “Stan and Stella have what Blanche wants. Their intimacy involves a degree of humility, spirited affection, and overt need, certainly, as well as the working out of a pattern of living generally suitable for them both” (Berkman). Blanche’s desire is to feel needed. These flaws may have caused her inability to relate to Stanley.

Stanley conveys some of the traditional Capricorn traits. On the positive side, his reasoning ability is outstanding. He is also socially oriented; his poker pals look out for him such as, when he took his anger out on Stella and the guys made him cool off. Stanley is also a character who is willing to work hard for anything that he wants and is very cautious. Capricorns are untrusting and often investigate. When Stella told him that Blanche lost Belle Reve, he wanted to examine all of her belongings and the bank papers. Also, he was the one that found out why Blanche retired during the school year. On the negative aspect of this astrological sign, they experience many mood swings. They can be calm for a while, and then suddenly have an outburst in anger such as during the poker game. They can express concern, which might turn into cruelty, and so they cannot always control their actions. Also, Capricorns do not like to be alone and are very selective in their search for a mate because they are capable of falling in love for pleasure. Williams made the “rape seem accidental, the result more of Stanley’s sudden and uncontrollable drunken lust than of his calculation and deliberate cruelty. Stanley does not rape Blanche because he knows her nervous breakdown and expulsion from his home will result. Rather, he does so because he has been physically to her from the start and has been encouraged by her on at least one occasion, and is able to fuel his desires with knowledge of her checkered past in Laurel. Too, he has probably not been sexually gratified for some time due to his wife’s growing pregnancy and the concurrent dearth of privacy created by his sister-in-law’s visit to their already cramped quarters” (Cardullo). Most of Stanley’s astrological characteristics contradict those of Blanche’s.

Williams also uses character names to further define Blanche and Stanley. The name Blanche comes from a French word meaning white. This concurs with Blanche’s character because she uses the French language to charm Mitch and seem more intelligent. White is also the color of purity. Williams might have used irony there, since Blanche is not at all pure. According to Parent Soup, Stanley’s name means “from the rocky meadow.” His life may seem rocky because his pregnant wife is not sexually gratifying him. Also, Stanley and Stella’s apartment is not very spacious or luxurious. Stanley’s name might also apply to Blanche, who had a rocky life, but denies it all throughout the play.
The character’s names and astrological signs may explain why they cannot seem to get along with each other. Blanche is a Virgo who is sensitive, unable to trust anyone, and lives in a superficial world. On the other hand, Stanley is a Capricorn who is more realistic, practical, and untrusting. They estrange one another because, “neither will tolerate the other, since each believes that the other a threat to the achievement or maintaining of intimacy in life” (Cardullo).
Bibliography:
“Capricorn.” http://tenthouse.com/horoscope/features/c-capri.html
(20 Dec. 1999)
“Meanings and Origins.” The Parent Soup.
http://www2.parentsoup.com/babynames/baby/s.html
(23 Dec. 1999)
“Signs in Detail: Capricorn.” http://www.astrologynow.net/caprifr.htm
(22 Dec. 1999)
“Signs in Detail: Virgo.” http://www.astrologynow.net/virgofr.htm
(22 Dec. 1999)
“Virgo.” http://tenthouse.com/horoscope/features/c-virgo.html
(20 Dec. 1999)

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Born on February 27, 1807, in Portland, Maine, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was raised in a Puritan family with three brothers and four sisters. While growing up he kept a good relationship with his family members. Longfellow spent many years in foreign countries to further his horizons. Longfellows solitary life style would not be expected from his extreme success in poetry (Williams, p.26).
Longfellows boyhood home was built by his grandfather, Peleg Wadsworth, in 1784-86, and was the first brick house in Portland. As a memorial to the poet, the house is still standing today. Then the house was by the seaside, where Longfellow could hear the rhythmic roar of the ocean. Probably much of his writing for his rhythms in his writing came through his listening to the wind and waves. Longfellow always visited there, especially up to the time of his fathers death in 1849 (Williams, 29).
The life of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882) was a mixture of triumph and tragedy, fulfillment and disappointment. His youthful ambitions were all literary, but to please his father he became a teacher. During the eight years he taught language at Bowdoin College and eighteen years at Harvard, he never quit writing. Thirteen of his books were published, including Evangeline (1847), the Poems on Slavery (1842), and The Golden Legend (1851). Longfellow also wrote poems about is family (Evangeline, preface). Longfellows six children were born in Craigie House, and he shared his love for them in The Childrens Hour (1860). When his wife, Mary, died, he commemorated her in the sonnet The Cross of Snow (1879) (Longfellow, p.730).
In 1855, the year after Longfellow gave up teaching for writing, his friend Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote him, No other poet has anything like your vogue(Evangeline, preface).Longfellow was married twice: in 1836, his wife of five years died in childbirth. Seven years later he married Elizabeth Appleton and settled in historic Craigie House, Cambridge.

In a tragic accident she was burned to death in 1861, leaving him with six children to raise. Longfellow overcame his sorrow and continued his work, which was enjoyed throughout America and Europe.

In 1881, the year before his death, his birthday was celebrated in schools all over America. Three years later a bust of Longfellow was unveiled in the Poets Corner, Westminster Abbey (Evangeline, preface).

The records of his early education show that Longfellow was a cautious student, but not much more than the other children in New England Puritan families. He is said to have started school when he was three years old, with his brother Stephen, two years older. By age six he had entered the Portland Academy; apparently he also attended other private schools.

Although Longfellows father was a Harvard graduate, he was determined to send his sons to Bowdoin. Longfellows grandfather, old Judge Longfellow, had been one of the founders of Bowdoin. For a time he was a member of a self-constituted military group call the Bowdoin Cadets, which drilled regularly.

Longfellow spent many years in foreign countries to expand his horizons to further his literary work. After many years of living a solitary lifestyle in a foreign country, he returned to the states to teach.

Henry didnt quit follow the traditional New England Puritan style of marrying as soon as he was well established. It was at the beginning of his third year at Bowdoin before he married. During one of his visits to Portland, Longfellow was struck with the attractiveness of one of three daughters of Judge Barrett Potter.

Mary Potter was five years younger than Longfellow. He began to court her by way of his sister Anne. They were married in September, 1831, when Longfellow was 24. they were married for three years and on November 28, 1835, in Rotterdam, she died of an illness following a miscarriage.

In late summer of 1836, Longfellow met an attractive woman by the name of Fanny Appelton. From the time of their meeting they were romantically interested. Neither were ready to fall in love when they met, Longfellow was still morning the loss of his first wife.

They were eventually married on July 13, 1843, nearly seven years later. Once again Longfellows marriage was ended by the death of his wife. Her death was followed by the deaths of his father (1849), older brother Stephen (1850), and his mother in 1851 (Williams, p.85).
During his eighteen years at Harvard, Longfellow overcame many hardships while continuing to write. With the experiences of foreign cultures, tragic losses, and the influence from the Civil War, Longfellow wrote a variety of poems to make his name known worldwide.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Williams, Cecil B.Henry Wadsworth LongfellowBoston:
Twayne Publishing, 1964.


Longfellow,Encyclopedia Americana.1995ed.


Longfellow, Henry WadsworthEvangeline.Canada:
Penguin Books Canada Limited, 1964.

The Odyssey

There are many essential emotions that form the building blocks of our lives. These emotions help to shape the people that we are. These feelings are emotional necessities to ultimately keep us happy. Nothing makes these feelings more evident than the Odyssey by Homer. Through out the course of this book there is one major emotional theme which is love.Often times in life we search for a companion, someone to share our love and life with. Odysseus and Penelope’s lasting relationship is an obvious representation of love in the Odyssey. Although Odysseus is gone for twenty years he never forgets his faithful wife in Ithaca. This love almost seems to help him persevere through the many hardships that he encounters on his journey home. On the other hand, Penelope also exemplifies this same kind of love for Odysseus. At home in Ithaca, she stays loyal to Odysseus by unraveling his shroud and delaying her marriage to the suitors that are courting her. She always keeps the hope that her love, Odysseus, will return. Odysseus and Penelope’s marriage clearly illustrates the theme of love.There are also many other bonds formed in life that show great love and guidance. One of the most emphasized in the Odyssey is the father – son relationship. These relationships clearly support the issue of love in the Odyssey. The father – son relationship between Odysseus and Telemachos is a little awkward because they both never really got to know each other but they still care for each other’s well being. When Odysseus hears of all the suitors devouring Telemachos’s future fortune and mistreating him, he wants to return and revenge the misuse of his family and property. Odysseus, like any parent, also misses his only child while he is at war. Telemachos on the contrary also displays a lot of love for his father. Telemachos leaves Ithaca, inexperienced, to find any knowledge of his father in hope that he is still alive. Telemachos through out most of his life has lacked a father figure and desperately needs that special help and guidance from Odysseus as he becomes a man. Their relationship seems to show how love can give you the strength to carry on.The other important father – son relationship in the Odyssey that exhibits love is the one between Odysseus and Laertes. Odysseus, when he returns, wishes to go see his father. When he confronts his father and tries to hide his identity, he is unable to finish his story because of the great sorrow in his father’s eyes. This shows how much he loves his father and what great suffering he caused him. This anguish that Laertes exhibits also shows how much love he has for his son. Since Odysseus was assumed to be dead, it almost sent Laertes into a kind of depression. When Odysseus returned it gave Laetes an overwhelming happiness. This is a case where love seems to be the cure for pain and grief.Love is major emotional theme and it is seen often in the Odyssey. Even though love comes and goes it still plays and important role in everyone’s lives. It is not hard to see how happiness relies on love. It definitely shapes who we are and what we do with our lives.

Drug addiction and abuse

The illegal or harmful use of drugs is a major threat to the world and to future generations. Drugs are substances that are becoming more common in our communities as each day goes by. The demand for drugs is also increasing daily. People need to act and play a part in the combating of drugs starting in their own homes. Every individual needs to be aware of the consequences of drug abuse and to help spread the word starting at young ages. All parts of local and world communities need to unite the strengths of professional expertise, generational wisdom, and individual commitment to combat the drug problem as they strive together toward a healthier world.

Communities can take part in the effort to put a stop to drug abuse by organizing groups of prevention experts and community volunteers whose mission is to help assure a healthier and safer world through drug prevention efforts by providing statistics and accurate information on the abuse of substances. There should also be a higher number of organizations that provide expertise on drug strategies. Everyone who seeks help against drug abuse should be able to find it regardless of where they are located.

There also needs to be enforcement in stronger laws and meaningful legal penalties that hold users and dealers accountable for their actions. Firmer laws would make some of those who traffic, deal, or consume drugs think twice before they act. The fear of facing the consequences might even prevent some of those who planned to handle drugs. Organizations against drug abuse need to support efforts to prevent availability and use of drugs, and oppose policies and programs that accept drug use. They also need to support international treaties and agreements, including international authorizations and penalties against drug trafficking, and oppose attempts to weaken international drug policies and laws.

Higher support in organizing efforts for a drug-free environment is needed in every community. Students need to be offered a higher number of extracurricular activities in which to participate. This would help keep children and teens off of the streets. In their free time they would still be able to hang out with their peers and have fun, yet they would be safer being held under adult supervision. Society needs to support healthy drug-free attitudes, environment, and activities, while reinforcing non-acceptance toward the presence of drugs and destructive behavior.

A higher amount of adult volunteers and organizations are needed in order to provide the children with these extracurricular activities without cost. This is where these organizations can ask for state government help in order to provide them with the sufficient money to provide these after school activities. Parents should also be encouraged to take a part in these programs with their children whenever they can. That way the bond between the parent and child can grow and there will be a higher comfort level when parents talk to their child about drug abuse.

Many drug consumers are introduced to drugs at an early age when they are young and nave and become addicted from there on. If children have more knowledge about drugs and its consequences there is a better chance for them to making a wiser decision when it comes to drugs. According to an article from the National Center on Addiction and Substance abuse at Columbia University (CASA), only one in four teens in America lives with hands-on parents. These are parents who have established a household culture of rules and expectations for their teens behavior and monitor what their teens do, such as the TV shows they watch, the CDs they buy, what they access on the Internet, and where they are evenings and weekends. These teens are at one quarter the risk of smoking, drinking and using drugs as teens with hands-off parents, according to a new survey of one thousand American teen ages 12-17 released by CASA.Mothers and fathers who are parents to their children rather than pals can greatly reduce the risk of their children smoking, drinking and using drugs. They can counter negative media influences and the prevalence of marijuana and other drugs in a teens world. Drug prevention teams can also counter the messages sent by media about drugs and help children realize that consuming drugs is much more dangerous than cool.Parents need to be responsible and aware of what their children do and where they are at all times, and spent more time with them in order to educate them properly and have better relationships with their children.

It is important to provide drug education beginning with prospective drug users, essentially children and teens. The desire to belong, peer pressure, drug media messages and the desire for sophistication are all part of adolescence and that is why it is important to educate our children at a young age and help them be prepared. In order to accelerate turning public opinion against drug use, drug education should be focused in large part on educating non-drug users how other peoples drug use affects them. Drug prevention enforcement should begin at home and should continue on at school and after school. Drug abuse prevention is the most effective and humane way of addressing the consequences of illegal, harmful, and mind-altering drugs in our society. Prevention works and needs to be reinforced, enhanced, and expanded.