Satellites

Satellites
Satellites orbit the earth doing our bidding in ways that enrich the lives of
almost all of us. Through electronic eyes from hundreds of miles overhead, they
lead prospectors to mineral deposits invisble on earth’s surface. Relaying
communications at the speed of light, they shrink the planet until its most
distant people are only a split second apart. They beam world weather to our
living room TV and guide ships through storms. Swooping low over areas of
possible hostility, spies in the sky maintain a surveillance that helps keep
peace in a volatile world.


How many objects, exaclty, are orbiting out there? Today’s count is 4,914.


The satellites begin with a launch, which in the U.S. takes place at Cape
Canaveral in Florida, NASA’s Wallops Flight Center in Virginia, or, for polar
orbiters, Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. One satellite in 20 is
crippled by the jolt of lift-off, or dies in the inferno of a defective rocket
blast, or is thrust into improper orbit. A few simply vanish into the immensity
of space. When a satellite emerges from the rocket’s protective shroud,
radiotelemety regularly reports on its health to round-the-clock crews of ground
controllers. They watch over the temperatures and voltages of the craft’s
electronic nervous system and other vital “organs”, always critical with
machines whose sunward side may be 300 degress hotter than the shaded part.


Once a satellite achieves orbit–that delicate condition in which the pull of
earth’s gravity is matched by the outward fling of the crafts speed–subtle
pressures make it go astray. Solar flares make the satellite go out of orbit.

Wisps of outer atmosphere drag its speed. Like strands of spiderweb, gravity
feilds of the earth, moon, and sun tug at the orbiting spacefarer. Even the
sunshine’s soft caress exerts a gentle nudge.


Should a satellite begin to wander, ground crews fire small fuel jets that steer
it back on course. This is done sparingly, for exhaustion of these gases ends a
craft’s useful career. Under such stresses, many satellites last 2 years. When
death is only a second away, controllers may command the craft to jump into a
high orbit, so it will move up away from earth, keeping orbital paths from
becoming too cluttered. Others become ensnarled in the gravity web; slowly they
are drawn into gravitational that serve as space graveyards.


A satellite for communications would really be a great antenna tower, hundreds
or even thousands of miles above the earth, capable of transmitting messages
almost instantaneously across the oceans and continents.


Soon after the launch of ATWS-6, “the Teacher in the sky”, (a satellite designed
to aid people) NASA ground controllers trained its antenna on Appalachia. There
is brought evening college classes to schoolteachers whose isolation denied
opportunity for advancement.


The use of Satellites is growing rapidly and so is the different jobs for them.

Civil war

23.) The method that Jefferson employed to bring the judiciary under Republican control was first the repeal of the Judiciary Act of 1801 which would eliminate the judgeships Adams had made. The results of this were that the Judiciary branch ended up becoming equal in power to the legislative and executive branches. Because of the case of Marbury vs. Madison in which Marbury won, power was given to the Supreme Court.
24.) France came into possession of Louisiana by way of signing a secret treaty with Spain called the San Ildefonso in 1800. Napoleon wanted to set up a territory in the new world and had dreams of France being glorified there.
26.) The group in America most concerned that the French had New Orleans were the Westerners. It affected Jefferson politically by making him choose between the support of his people by forcing Spain to let the US use the whole Mississippi river which could start an all out war with France or he would lose his following and become dependent on trade through the ocean through the British fleet.

28.) The reasons behind Jefferson’s reservations over the purchase of Louisiana were that they had not yet been authorized by the government to do so, but he was scared Napoleon might withdraw the offer so he proceeded. He reasoned his doubts away by learning that his treaty making powers under the constitution justified the purchase of Louisiana.
30.) The reaction of the New England Federalists to the Louisiana purchase was one of rage. They realized that the more the country grew and the more states which joined the union spread the power away from the federal government and more to the state governments away from the federalist region. Their plan to overcome these effects was to secede from the Union and form a “Northern Confederacy” but Hamilton would not join the idea and with Burr leading it he failed to win the election and it never worked.

31.) The circumstances that led to the duel between Hamilton and Burr were that Burr felt he lost his election because Hamilton had been calling him despicable amongst other terms. Hamilton hated Burr for everything he was and Burr despised Hamilton.
37.) The areas of the Nation that supported the embargo were none. The embargo destroyed the American economy and there were not any people who liked it other than the politicians trying to prevent war. he people who opposed it ranged from merchants to farmers to ship holders to everywhere. They lost huge amounts of money and their businesses plummeted. They felt the act was unconstitutional.
38.) The embargo affected the election of 1808 by having the people turn away from Jefferson where his secretary of state, Madison was elected for President. The response of the new President to the diplomatic problems the embargo had given was that he reopened trade everywhere but France and Britain. Then opened everywhere and then only to France. Britain was hurt economically.

46.) New England opposed the war of 1812 because they had lost many battles in the New England region which embarrassed them. Also, they were dominantly federalist and made fun of the administration of the republicans wherever they could. To hinder the war effort the New England states made a convention where they tried to once again secede from the US, but it failed and made the Federalist party pretty much die out right then and there.

47.) The leaders of New England regarded the War of 1812 as a threat to their future as a meaningful force in the United States because they felt that the republicans were going about it all wrong and would not be able to win the war because they were politically inadequate. The federalist tried to then secede from the United States but could not get the 23 majority at a convention and the federalist party died out.
48.) The Hartford Convention destroyed the federalist party. It tried to create a separate federalist government but in effect because it didn’t, the federalist party died out.
Bibliography:

1984 9

AN ANALYTIC ESSAY ON
1984
Who is watching us? Who judges us? And most importantly who controls us? In George Orwell’s novel 1984, Big Brother was in charge of all these crucial aspects of everyone’s lives. This book which was written long before 1984 can really take place at anytime and anywhere. The concepts and themes of this book are very real and very frightening. May be telescreens do not exist but V-chips and Pentium III computers are very much alive. Even though we live in modern times how do we know who is insane? The world is flat and the planets revolve around Earth were once sane statements. Finally do we control ourselves in this Democratic country or are we just puppets dancing to the high and powerful affluent members of our society. Or maybe G-d himself is the one who makes us do the things we do.
The thought police seek out and cure the misguided people who simply think too much. They look at you minute by minute to see what you are doing and how u are doing it. I think more interesting than the thought police are the teaching of the morals of the land to the children. They are taught the ways of Ingsoc. They know right from wrong. One of Winston’s peers was taken away because his own daughter told the thought police on him. In this society children are at school more than they are even home. It is very possible to have a closer relationship with a teacher than with a parent. On top of that, Big Brother and the inner party teach that it is only ‘you and the party’;. Meaning the party is very individualized. This allows the party to function very nicely because people do not make relationships with other people only to the party. People in Oceania are never left alone. If you are alone and you are not sleeping this would definitely be looked at by the thought police. To keep people occupied there are hate speeches in order to show your love to Big Brother and Hate to the opposing country that Oceania is at war with. Everyone has a job and they are many organizations to belong to like the junior anti-sex league.
Surveillance is a frightening thing. If you knew that everywhere you turned you were being recorded it could drive you crazy. The truth is that most of the places we go we are recorded. Such as security cameras in schools, malls, stores, and even on the street near ATM’s. Phone lines are easy to tap and most calls you make to stores or businesses are recorded. They even tell you that your conversation is being monitored for your protection. The V-chip that would allow the government to monitor and control what you watched on TV exists. And even without it the government controls most things from the media. We do not know exactly what goes on in other countries. We see wars on TV and the news but what don’t we see. The Pentium III computer by Intel is able to note everywhere you go online in order to get feedback of what people like to see on the Internet. Tracking is being done too on a daily basis. How many people have Easy-Pass? It tracks the amount of times you go through a bridge. Who knows if they could track that from a satellite? Everything from Caller-ID to punching into work tracks your every move. Just like Winston doesn’t know who is in the thought police, we don’t know who is an undercover police officer. They are in malls, schools and in the streets all the time.
Ignorance is Strength. Ignorance also keeps you from knowing the truth. The people of Oceania accept ignorance. In the novel, Winston was thought to be insane for not loving Big Brother. Then after torture and pain Winston gave in. He did love Big Brother. The irony is that this is probably when Winston truly became insane. I believe that the people of Oceania as a whole were very ignorant. They did not realize, question, or care that the history was being erased, that their allies would change constantly, that Big Brother was immortal since he had invented everything including the question mark. But what I find interesting is that as individuals they did know what was happening. Look how many people worked with Winston. Changing the past was not just Winston’s job. As I said before, the silence was mostly because it was ‘you and the party’;. No one socialized. There were no friends, family would turn on you, and most people did not love their husbands/wives. It was impermissible to show affection to your spouse. The board would choose who should get married. If the two people were shown to be in love then they could not be married. Winston’s wife would not have sex but do her ‘duty to the party’;.
The insanity of life in Oceania was not being able to trust anyone. I don’t think that there was a revolutionary group. But people did see what was going on. People did think about revolting. But in Oceania one man can’t make a difference. Without people backing you there can’t be a revolt. People were thinking about revolting and hating Big Brother. If not, why were there thought police? When Winston went to be cured in the Ministry of Love there were other people there. If no one felt hatred to this way of life then Winston would have been alone.

Big Brother is the leader of Oceania. No one has actually seen him in person. He controls everything and has been around forever. The people love him even though they can’t see him. He is like G-d to them. In the bible, G-d is everywhere. He sees everything and hears everything. He knows what you are thinking and sees your good deeds. Big Brother as well does all of this. With the help of the telescreens all of this is made possible. The people do not even question his existence. I feel that if O’Brien was working all along for the inner party that maybe Goldstein is really Big Brother. The book he wrote did not really explain everything and Goldstein is really somewhat of an unknown as well.
The novel 1984 opened the minds of many people in the 1940’s. More importantly, is that even today 1984 still allows us to view the world with Winston’s eyes. It shows us how many things we do on a daily basis for no other reason then that’s what we are supposed to do. The ideas of the book are truly a parallel to Big Brother because they are both timeless entities.

Marx

Marxism is a philosophical system developed by Marx and Friedrich Engels. The theory is also known as dialectical materialism, under which matter gives rise to mind. Dialectical materialism is based on social and political institutions progressively changing their nature as economic developments transform material conditions. This is the basis for communism. The reverse theory would be capitalism. While communism in some forms can be traced to various utopian ideas, the theoretical basis for the communist countries is from Karl Marx, an impoverished German, and his colleague Friedrich Engels.

Marx believed that all the evil in the world could be attributed to a class struggle between the “haves,” the wealthy, who controlled the means of production and the “have nots,” the workers, who actually did the laboring. Marx saw greater and greater wealth being concentrated in the hands of fewer and fewer, while the masses, the workers, were being deprived of the rightful fruits of their labors. Marx envisioned a world union of the Working Classes, where the proletariat would arise and overthrow the bosses. Then, with the workers controlling everything, everyone would work to the limits of his (or her) abilities, and everyone would receive all he or she needed.

Marx envisioned this taking place first in the highly industrialized countries of Germany and England, not in largely rural and illiterate Russia. Lenin’s contribution to Marxist theory was the concept of the weakest link: that Russia, as the weak link in the chain of industrialized countries, should be the first to overthrow the bourgeois and establish a dictatorship of the proletariat. As we can see in recent years, things did not go according to his plan.


Marx’s economic theories were complicated and mostly very wrong. Central to his conception of economics was the labor theory of value. According to this theory, the amount a product was worth depended on how much labor was put into it. In reality, a product is worth how much you can sell it for. Marx thought that capitalists, the people who owned the means of production, would constantly push to get more and more labor out of workers, the people who comprised the proletariat, so they could get more and more profits.

In his view, competition tended to merely lower wages. In the end, the smaller capitalists would not be able to compete and would become part of the proletariat as well. When the proletariat finally became large and oppressed enough, it would rise and overthrow the capitalists and take control of the means of production and operate them for the public good. Today, we acknowledge that competition also lowers prices, which makes goods cheaper for everyone.

Marx’s view of new technology was also rather backward. He saw it as tending to make workers redundant, which is true, and thus making workers more desperate for work and driving wages down. He failed to realize that gains in productivity also make goods cheaper for everyone, including workers, and that the savings in one industry could be invested in another and result in greater employment in the end. Rising productivity is actually essential to rising standards of living over the long run.

Marx often used the views of other philosophers, like Hegel and Feuerbach to support his social theories. Feuerbach, for instance, was very critical of religion. Hegel saw human history as the progression from bondage to freedom. Freedom is achieved as the desires of the individual are integrated into the unified system of the state, in which the will of one is replaced by the will of all. This theory is shown in his division of history into three stages, the first of which is in the ancient orient where only the ruler was free, the second in Greece and Rome where some were free, and modern world where all are considered free. This view of history divided Hegel’s followers into left- and right-wing camps, with leftists like Marx turning the dialectic of Spirit into the dialectic of economic conditions and rightists stressing the unity of the state and breathing new life into Protestantism.
When Marx wrote about revolution, in many ways he did not have a clear idea regarding its logistics. It is one thing to write about expropriating the expropriator; it is quite another to figure out just how to do it. Marx assumed that the ruling class, capitalists, would not relinquish power without a fight, so he foresaw a violent struggle. Toward the end of his life, however, Marx began to waver on this as well as some other important issues. But it was not until after his death that Marxists (revisionists) began to come up with concrete strategies to bring about revolution via nonviolent parliamentary participation.

Marx had the idea that the people should rise from the lower classes and overthrow the rich or ruling class. His error in assuming classes was that in a capitalist system, where there is no monarchy, there is no distinct social class, and upward mobility of the middle class is a dynamic. Social distinctions are made, but are made in standards of living that are only guaranteed by the hard work and risks of engaging in profit making business. Limits of upward mobility are only limited by the lack of talent and hard work.
In a Utopian society such as the one Marx envisioned, there would not be the need to invest hard work and risks for greater returns. Without motivation and hard work, Utopia is only a dream, and living standards will probably seek the lowest level of subsistence. This has proven true in most all such experiments with communism.

Even the lowest level in a good capitalist society gains advantages as the standard of living rises. The rising tide raises all boats. Some boats may not be as grand as others but are adequate for those who apply their talents and energy. In the Marxist social model, there is a trend toward mediocrity at best and mere survival at worst. Competition and striving seem to gravitate toward the best of all worlds even for the least of us. We can, in effect, enjoy the fruits of the efforts of others and aid their ascension while enjoying these benefits.
Utopia is a situation of unrealistic expectations where there is not a drive to excel and compete. A pie that is small and divided evenly is still a small piece of pie. On the other hand, a larger and more magnificent pie has the potential of satisfying needs although the wedge is narrower.

Imagine a world without Amazon.com

Last modified: September 1, 2000, 5:00 AM PDT
From emailprotected
Special to CNET News.com
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Amazon.com is arguably the biggest name in online shopping, the gold
standard against which all dot-coms are judged. Is it really possible,
then, that someday we will be forced to live in a virtual world without
this mammoth bookseller?
Certainly, it’s too soon to write a eulogy. But on the savage frontier of
Internet commerce, even the biggest and toughest–though they may have been
the first to stake the choicest claim–are not assured survival.

“I don’t know if the company is smart or stupid,” jokes Peter S. Fader, who
teaches marketing at Wharton. Fader says the Internet-retailing industry is
so young, so full of money-losing behemoths like Amazon, that there is no
way to tell which business models will succeed.

The 6-year-old seller of books and CDs sits atop millions of computer
users’ Favorites lists. But many investors, Wall Streeters and academics
who have studied the company cannot ignore some frightening facts: The
company has lost well in excess of $1 billion, and its losses have grown
even though sales have skyrocketed. Most seriously, it is saddled with
enormous debts.

Amazon is struggling to attract more customers by offering an ever-wider
range of products, including toys and even cars. But the attempt to be more
than a book and record store, to offer everything to everyone, smacks of
desperation.

“Now the company is broad but shallow,” Fader says. Costs could soar even
higher, and the new offerings could create a management nightmare. And,
most important, Amazon risks “diluting what the brand means,” Fader says.

For Amazon, it’s a reversal of fortune. The company went public in May 1997
at a share price, adjusted for subsequent splits, of $1.50. By any measure
the stock was an enormous success in the first two years, peaking at $113
on Dec. 9. But it has been sinking ever since, hitting a low of just under
$28 on July 31. Recently, it has traded around $39.

While falling share prices have afflicted many Internet companies this
year, Amazon clearly has real problems. Despite attracting 23 million
shoppers, it lost nearly $720 million in 1999, compared with losses of $125
million in 1998, $31 million in 1997 and $6 million in 1996. Losses soared
despite the enormous gains in sales–$1.64 billion in 1999 vs. $610 million
the year before, for instance.

Investors were particularly concerned when the company reported late in
July that sales growth had nearly come to a standstill. For the second
quarter of 2000, sales were only 1 percent higher than in the first
quarter.

Rather than focus on that number, the company emphasized the comparison
with the same quarter a year earlier, showing an 84 percent jump in sales.

Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos has bristled at suggestions that the company is in
serious trouble, arguing it will pay off in the long run to stomach losses
to broaden the customer base and expand product offerings. Trying to reach
profitability too soon would force the company to spend less on expansion,
stunting its long-term growth, he argues. In announcing the recent
quarter’s results, Bezos says new automated systems at the company’s
warehouses and marketing efforts to get past customers to buy more should
help the company become profitable. But he has repeatedly declined to say
when he expects the company to move into the black.

Reality check
Still, the company clearly recognizes it has problems. Last month Amazon
was forced to give new stock options to employees because the falling share
price had made earlier options grants worthless. Like many online
companies, Amazon’s low pay is counterbalanced by what are intended to be
generous options grants. If options look like they won’t pay off, vital
employees and executives may jump ship.

One high-profile departure has already caught media attention. Amazon
president and chief operating officer Joseph Galli quit in July to become
president and chief executive of VerticalNet, a Horsham, Pa., business-to-
business Web site. Galli walked away from Amazon options that, according to
one estimate, could have been worth more than $1 billion if Amazon shares
rose by even a relatively modest 10 percent a year. He said he wanted to
run a company and be closer to his family.

Wall Street analysts have been losing their ardor for Amazon, with about a
third of them recently shifting their ratings from “buy” to “hold,” a kind
of purgatory that’s not much better than the outright damnation of a “sell”
rating.

“Despite our personal fondness for the site, we are cautious on the shares
near term,” Faye Landes, an analyst for Sanford C. Bernstein, said in an
early August note to investors. Landes was concerned that her firm’s
research had shown that few Amazon customers knew it sold products other
than books and CDs. The cost of getting the message out on cookware, patio
furniture and other newer offerings could drive Amazon shares down as low
as $12, she said. Landes made that estimate before Amazon announced
ambitious, promotion-dependent partnerships for selling toys and cars. It
has also just announced that it will sell electronic books in partnership
with Microsoft.

Landes is one among many Amazon watchers to have focused on the company’s
immense costs. Amazon claims to sell 18 million items, requiring a network
of expensive warehouses and legions of employees to find and ship items
that customers order. Like many Internet retailers, Amazon also spends
enormously on marketing and promotion.

By contrast, one of the most successful online enterprises–and one of the
few profitable ones–is eBay, the auction site. The key to eBay’s
profitability is its lean costs, says Gerald Lee Lohse, research director
of the Wharton Forum on Electronic Commerce, who studies Internet
companies. When eBay’s sales double, costs rise only 4 percent, he says.

That’s because eBay doesn’t take possession of the items sold on the site.

It merely brings buyer and seller together.

Priceline.com, where customers bid for airline tickets, groceries and other
products, also doesn’t need to build its own inventory, leading some
observers to suggest its approach may ultimately prove better than
Amazon’s. Priceline also has yet to turn a profit.

Clearly, staggering costs could swamp Amazon. Ravi Suria, a Lehman Brothers
analyst, wrote in a July report that the company might already be out of
business had it not been able to borrow $681 million through a convertible
bond sale last February. Amazon’s “negative cash flow, poor working capital
management and high debt load” make the future questionable, he wrote.

Searching for loyal subjects
Amazon’s vast product offerings recall a 19th-century gold rush, with
miners racing to stake claims at any cost before competitors could tie up
promising territory. But there’s a big difference: A gold prospector might
really secure exclusive rights to a claim, but no one gets exclusive rights
to Internet territory, where competitors can pop up overnight.

“What’s going to stop me from starting a Web site and selling books?” asks
Wharton accounting professor Peter H. Knutson. All it would take, he adds,
is some deals with book publishers and a few accounts with credit card
companies.

And although Amazon would appear to have a tremendous asset in its widely
recognized name, there is every sign that Internet shoppers’ loyalties are
shallow, making brand names less important, Knutson points out. If another
bookseller offers a lower price, easier ordering system or friendlier
customer service, the customer may well desert–especially as trying
another online store takes only a few keystrokes, not a drive across town.

And now customers don’t even need to know what other online stores are out
there, as there are search engines, like DealTime.com, which will scour
many sites at once for the best prices, Knutson says. “Customers have no
loyalty at all,” he adds.

Eric Bradlow, professor of marketing and statistics at Wharton, notes that
selling products is not Amazon’s only game. The company can also sell
advertising space on its site. To make this pay, Amazon must be able to
provide advertisers with large numbers of potential customers. At the same
time, the company must minimize its own cost of obtaining these so-called
eyeballs. But the key to this is, again, creating customer loyalty–getting
people to come back again and again on their own. So far, Bradlow says,
it’s not clear that any Web site can achieve such customer “stickiness”
without continually spending enormous sums on marketing and promotion.

“If people were not price-sensitive, if people were loyal, if stickiness
actually held on the Internet, that would be a good model,” Bradlow notes.

“The question is whether that is true…Customer acquisition is very
costly, and many companies spend way too much on customer acquisition and
not enough on customer retention.”
Despite all the costs, obstacles and unknowns in the new frontier of
Internet retailing, Amazon does have an edge on many competitors. “You have
to look on Amazon as the bellwether for all dot-coms,” Lohse says. Research
has shown that customers are impressed with Amazon’s site, a key to
building customer loyalty, he adds.

“People find Amazon easier to use than Barnes & Noble’s site, for example.”
But the data also show that many people who click on Internet retail sites
are just curious, he says.

On average, only 2 percent of the people who visit a site make purchases,
according to Fader. Given that, Amazon’s figure of 10 percent is
impressive. But it’s far from clear that even this is enough to make an e-
retailer profitable. Certainly, the manager of any traditional brick-and-
mortar business would be in despair if only one in 10 visitors made a
purchase.

Moreover, many visitors who do make online purchases quickly lose interest
when the novelty wears off or they are disappointed for one reason or
another, or if they conclude that prices aren’t low enough to justify the
wait for delivery. About 15 percent of first-time purchasers “drop out,”
meaning they make no additional Internet purchase for at least a year,
Lohse says. Others make a few purchases, then drop out.

Another dark cloud: Lohse sees signs that the growth in Internet purchases
over the past few years is leveling off. The industry may thus be
approaching a saturation point at which the current base of customers is
buying as much as it ever will.

Typically, the current Internet customer comes from a household with an
annual income of $56,000, nearly double the national average of about
$30,000. As computer ownership gets cheaper and machines are acquired by
less affluent households, there may be a second wave of potential
customers, he says. But that group doesn’t have as much to spend.

Fortunately for Amazon, some research has shown that customers return to
the site even though they can get books cheaper elsewhere, indicating
Amazon is, in fact, building loyalty. The main reason, Lohse says, is
Amazon’s added features, such as reviews, shopping suggestions and one-
click purchasing. Amazon has done a good job keeping shopping pleasant and
easy for customers, and that should encourage customers to try Amazon’s new
product offerings.

“For Amazon to grow, it has the right strategy,” he points out. Still, he
adds, it’s not a given that many pure Internet retailers will be able to
survive against competitors, such as Barnes & Noble, which use their online
businesses merely to complement their brick-and-mortar stores. These more
traditional competitors can come to the table with a big stake–strong
revenues, loyal customers and lots of know-how.

Internet retailing looks like it will be a war of attrition, with victory
going to those with the best staying power. At best, Amazon’s ability to
endure is in doubt. A company can only gush red ink for so long.


To read more articles like this one, visit emailprotected
All materials copyright 2000 of the Wharton School of the University of
Pennsylvania.

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Huck Finn – Life on the raft vs land

In the novel, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, by Mark Twain, Huck lives in two different settings. One of the settings is on land with the widow and with his father and the other is on the river with Jim. There are many differences of living on land as opposed to living on the Mississippi River. On land, Huck has more rules to live by and he has to watch himself so as not to upset the widow or his father. On the river, Huck didn’t have to worry about anything except people finding Jim. He also had to worry about the king and the duke for a while. Even thought there are many differences of the two living styles, there are also some similarities.

Life on land was filled with many difficulties. There were many rules that Huck had to follow set by both the widow and his father. The widows main goal was to civilize Huck into a member of society. She expected Huck to go to school, wear clean clothes, sleep in his bed, and go to church. She just wanted him to be like a normal child of his age. Even though Huck bends the rules a bit and tries to sneak a smoke here and there, he eventually grows to like living under the widows protection. He proves this point when he says, “Living in a house, and sleeping in a bed, pulled on me pretty tight, mostly, but before the cold weather I used to slide out and sleep in the woods, sometimes, and so that was a rest to me. I liked the old ways best, but I was getting so I liked the new ones, too, a little bit.” (Twain 1211) He enjoyed his new life of modern comfort until his father kidnapped him and took him to live in a cabin with him. At first, Huck enjoyed his new setting and life in the cabin, but eventually he started to grow sick of being locked up for long periods of time. He began to get annoyed at seeing his father getting drunk and violent all the time. He says, “But by-and-by pap got too handy with his hick’ry, and I couldn’t stand it. I was all over welts. He got to going away so much, too, and locking me in.” (Twain 1216).

Life on the river was also good at first, but it also became tiresome for Huck. He liked the sense of freedom that he had while he was on the river with Jim, he didn’t have to go to school nor did he have any rules that he had to live by. He didn’t have to worry about what his father was going to do to him. However the river still set limits on their freedom, Jim and Huck were only able to travel at night because they were afraid of Jim being found and whenever they would stop for the day, they would have to cover up the raft with leaves and foliage. Huck did not like having to be the one that would have to go look for food and water for them, he never had to be responsible until this time and, he didn’t like having to use such precautions so that Jim would not be found. Huck could have made life easier for himself and turned Jim in, but he looked at him as a friend not as a fugitive slave.
Twain purposely These two living conditions Re not very similar although there are a few similarities that can be found. The first similarity is how each living situation started out easy, but became hard and tiresome for Huck. Though living with the widow started out hard and became easy, the similarity is the change for the opposite difficulty than what the difficulty was to start with. Another similarity is that Huck is not happy with wherever he is. He was not happy at the widow’s because of all the rules nor was he happy at his father’s because of the beatings that he received. Though this could be said about any living situation, the problem is exaggerated in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.

Though there are many difficulties in all of the living situations that Huck has experienced, the easiest one for him to deal with was the one with the widow. Even though he did not like abiding by her rules, at least he had a place to sleep and food to eat. Huck liked being his own boss on the river, but he also liked the comfort that he got from the widow. He also liked the freedom that he thought he had at his father. However difficult each situation, the easiest and best situation is usually the most apparent one.

Next Day – Aging Next


Next Day – Aging
Is aging a true moral dilemma or just harsh criticism of society? The poem “Next Day” by Randell Jarrell and Ulysses by Lord Tennyson Alfred are good examplesof what role society plays in wht one feels they should look like, act like, and the differences between sexes and aging. In the “Next Day” poem by Randell Jarrell the woman is most devastated by aging. She feels that society giver her less respect and she is pushed aside because she has aged and lost her youth and vitality. when at her friends’ funeral, what she sees is an aged cold body. Feeling of fear that aged and cold is all she is becoming. She feels at a loss. That because she has aged, she has lost everything that counts as a person. I feel it is obvious that this woman is desperate for something more in her life, but first she needs to realize that because you have aged does not mean your dying. It should be shown from society that your matured and experienced, with everything to offer from your mind and not just your body.
In Ulysses by Lord Tennyson Alfred, there is a man who feels he is missing something in his life. Instead of living depressed and feeling hopeless, as the woman in “Next Day”, he decided to do something about it, by sailing off to find his new world. This is what the woman in the “Next Day” should be doing instead of sulking.
The differences between the sexes in societies’ eyes, in my opinion, are when men age, they become intelligent, wise, handsome and distinguished. When women age they become old, wilted and big money makers for large cosmetic companies. If this perception could change we all could be a closer step to a perfect life in society.

Sartres Existentialist View

Jean-Paul Sartre says “man is nothing else but what he makes of himself” (762). This existentialist view depicts the idea that one is not based on the essence of a soul, but rather, based on decisions made throughout life. Sartre also believes that every man is responsible for all men. One may choose his marriage partner, however, in choosing to marry, one chooses monogamy. Decisions that individuals make will collectively create a set of principles and beliefs for all of man. Many people believe that a person’s decisions are a reflection of his soul and personality. However, it is more likely that the conclusion a person reaches is due to the influence of different ideas, as well as the circumstances surrounding the choices. One does not have an innate “essence”, but instead, the choices that a person makes constantly shape his character, which in turn creates his essence.Decision-making is based on many different conditions and controlling factors that exist at the time of conflict. People take into consideration the thoughts and opinions of others, hindering the idea of an individual’s essence. If an essence really existed, another person’s thoughts would not affect someone else’s. Instead, a person makes choices from birth and the different decisions that one chooses form a pattern and creates one’s character.Sartre also says, “Man is nothing else than his plan; he exists only to the extent that he fulfills himself; he is therefore nothing else than the ensemble of his acts, nothing else than his life” (769). This exemplifies the point that man is the product of his actions and has complete control over his own life. The soul and personality that are given to a person do not limit him in his actions; the judgments that he makes depict the type of person that he is. Therefore the essence does not create the man, the man creates his essence. Also, one’s choices and decisions create a code for all of man. This set of codes creates the unwritten laws of people, which in turn create “good and bad.” If a person acts against this he can pray to God and ask for forgiveness. However, existentialism is indifferent to God’s existence, which makes the person fully responsible for his own actions. This causes despair because it leaves people with nothing to cling to when they have made the wrong decision. If God does not exist, then there is no moral code to follow, therefore all men are free. It is completely upon the man to decide what is good and what is not. There is no longer the sense of “God judging man” so one must make his own decisions and based on them he is “condemned to be free” (765-766). Sartre believes that man is condemned because he did not choose to exist, but is also free because he is completely responsible for his actions. Existentialism does not allow room for mistake. A person has no one to blame for bad decisions or misunderstandings. One cannot say, “I have had bad luck” because existentialism does not believe in fortune or misfortune, but only in personal decisions. This enhances the true reality of life. Situations create the future and therefore hopes and dreams are a mere loss of reality. The future is produced by a person’s decisions and so one should not dream but rather, make decisions that will lead to a beneficial life in the future.Sartre also says “a man who lies and makes excuses for himself by saying not everybody does that,’ is someone with an uneasy conscience, because the act of lying implies that a universal value is conferred upon the lie” (764). This further illustrates the concept that there is an unwritten law for man, and creates the idea of good and bad. There are choices that are universally made when a person is placed in the same situation, with the same circumstances. Sartre believes that man should base his decisions on the thought that all of mankind is watching and will guide themselves by the actions of that one person.This belief forces people to think before they act and consciously make decisions knowing that it will reflect humanity. Simply, one person’s actions are enough to influence another’s action, which influences one to act morally. This ripple effect is the component that forms the idea of right and wrong. It also enables order and establishes a conscience. If a person knows that there are consequences for every choice, then more thought will be placed behind the decision. Although influence from outside forces will have an impact on a person, one still has to make the decision for himself.Existentialism forces people to take responsibility for their actions and not blame society or bad luck. Man constitutes society and must therefore choose the make up of principles that will most benefit the public. This also manifests the feeling of control within the community. People will follow laws because they created them. Laws are based on choices that should be made when given specific circumstances. If the wrong decision is made, then negative consequences follow. By living an existential life a person can detach himself from the idea of expectations and hopes, and instead, choose the right paths that will lead him to his desires.Sartre steers away from the traditional belief that God has an influence on choices that a person makes, and the idea that unreasonable circumstances, or worse yet, bad luck, play a role in one’s decisions. Instead, existentialism prompts a person to become liable for his choices. This often ignites anxiety because there is no longer a cushion to fall back on. Sartre explains this by saying, “the coward is defined on the basis of the acts he performs” (771). This portrays the idea that people are not born a certain way, or with a certain type of personality. Everyone creates his own essence by the decisions that he makes on a daily basis, and from this, he becomes the person that he created.Works CitedSartre, Jean-Paul. “Existentialism.” The Norton ReaderEd. Linda H. Peterson, John C. Brereton, Joan E. Hartman. NY: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1996. 762-771.

Smoking

—————————————————
Microsoft Windows 98 README for Online Services
and Internet Service Providers
April 1998
—————————————————
(c) Copyright Microsoft Corporation, 1998
————————
HOW TO USE THIS DOCUMENT
————————
To view the document on-screen in Notepad, maximize
the Notepad window.


To print Services.txt, open it in Notepad,
and then on the File menu, click Print.


——–
CONTENTS
——–
OVERVIEW
PRODUCT SUPPORT AND PAYMENTS
TO SET UP A NEW ACCOUNT
TO SET UP YOUR COMPUTER TO USE AN EXISTING ACCOUNT
————————————————–
OVERVIEW
========
The online services and Internet service providers
(ISPs) listed in this folder are made available for
your convenience. You can select any of the available
online services or Internet service providers you like.


PRODUCT SUPPORT AND PAYMENTS
============================
By selecting an online service or Internet service
provider (ISP) listed in this folder, you are establishing
an account with that company directly, not with Microsoft
Corporation. The service you select can provide you with
specific payment instructions.


Microsoft does not provide technical support for the
services that your online service or ISP renders. If
you have any questions concerning a particular online
service’s or Internet service provider’s policies or
content, contact them directly.


Technical Support contact information for the online
services/ISPs in this folder are listed below.


America Online (in the U.S.)
—————————-
Telephone:
Technical Support: 1 (800) 827-3338
Sales and Billing: 1 (800) 827-6364
America Online (in the U.K.)
—————————-
Telephone:
Technical Support Customer Service Centre: 0800 279-7444
General Inquiries: 0800 376-5432
Online:
Further information about terms and conditions are
available online.
AOL Canada (in Canada)
———————-
Telephone:
Technical Support: 1 888 265-4357
General Inquiries: 1 888 265-4357
Online:
Further information about terms and conditions are available
online.


AT&T WorldNet Service
———————
Telephone (U.S., Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands):
Technical Support: 1 800 400-1447
General Inquiries: 1 800 967-5363
Online:
Members should get support at http://www.worldnet.att.net/care
General information for non-members is available at http://www.att.net
CompuServe (in the U.S. and Canada)
———————————–
Telephone:
Customer Service: 1 (800) 848-8990
Signup Support: 1 (800) 336-6823
Online:
To access online assistance, type GO MEMBER.


CompuServe (in the U.K.)
————————
Telephone:
Customer Service:0990 000-400
Signup Support:0990 134-819
Technical Support:0990 000-100
Online:
To access online assistance, type GO MEMBER. For real-time
technical support, type GO UKHF to access the UK Help Forum.


The Microsoft Network (MSN)
—————————
Telephone:
Dial 888-MSN-TIPS (888-676-8477) for FastTips on MSN issues.

Customer Service:
Australia 02 9934 9000
Canada (English) 800-386-5550
Canada (French) 800-952-1110
Canada TDD (English) 800-840-9890
United Kingdom 0345 000 111
United States 800-386-5550
United States TDD 800-840-9890
If you are calling from a country not listed above,
dial 44 181 607 0012 for English-language Customer
assistance.

Technical Support:
Australia 02 9934 9000
Canada (English) 425-635-7019
Canada (French) 425-635-7020
Canada TDD (English) 425-635-4948
United Kingdom 0345 000 111
United States 425-635-7019
United States TDD 425-635-4948
If you are calling from a country not listed above,
dial 44 181 607 0012 for English-language Technical
assistance.

Online:
Click MSN Member Support E-mail to send in your question.
Prodigy Internet
—————-
Telephone (U.S. and Canada only):
Customer Service: 1 (800) 213-0992
Signup Support: 1 (800) 213-0992
Online:
To access online assistance, go to HELP.


TO SET UP A NEW ACCOUNT
=======================
If you decide to select one of the online services or
Internet service providers listed in this document, click
the icon for that particular online service or Internet
service provider in the Online Services folder on the
desktop. This begins the installation process for setting
up access to that service on your computer.


TO SET UP YOUR COMPUTER TO USE AN EXISTING ACCOUNT
==================================================
If you already have an account established with one of the
online services or Internet service providers listed in
this document, click the icon for that particular service
in the Online Services folder on the desktop to begin the
installation process for use with your existing account.
Each online service/ISP is responsible for the way this
process is handled.

BILINGUAL EDUCATION

The word “bilingual” means the ability to speak or write two languages equally well. Thus, a system of bilingual education aims to make non-native speaking students maintain good linguistic abilities in both their native language and their second language. Bilingual education, mainly targeted either for students in the upper social economic group as in Egypt, or for immigrants as in the United States, allows these students to have good job opportunities. Yet, it lacks the ability to make the students perfect the two languages studied.

In the United States, the system of bilingual education aims to ease the immigrants into the new society. Non-native English speaking students are taught in their native language besides learning English as a second language. In other words, the system aims to preserve and build on the students’ native language skills as they continue to acquire English as a second language. But these students know very little English; they need to acquire more language abilities in English in order to blend in the society, while keeping the native language is the role of the family. Richard Rodriguez, who was born to Mexican immigrant parents, stated that using the native language in school is a misunderstanding for the main aim of school; also, it is considered a way of lessening the importance of the family (282).

Bilingual education in Egypt differs from that in the United States. In the United States, the main aim of the system is to help the immigrants to deal with the society. But in Egypt, English as a second language is taught, as it is the language of the world. Families of the upper socio economic classes believe that teaching their children English as a second language is a way to success, as this will provide them with good job opportunities with high salaries. My parents applied for me in an English school, as they believe that learning English is a kind of security for my future. Mark Schaub, who has taught many courses at the American University in Cairo stated that middle and upper classes in Egypt believe that English will lead their children to ” worldliness or economic success” (206).

However, graduates of bilingual schools do not sufficiently master the English language. When I graduated from school, I joined the American University in Cairo as an ELI student. The ELI is an English intensive course that aims to improve the English language for students with low English levels. Mark Schaub made a survey in which he found that his university students do not have enough fluency for writing English at university level (204).

In addition, the students of bilingual education are unable to master their own language, the Arabic language. Mark Schaub taught a course in journalism; he found his students unable to conduct the interviews in Arabic. The students were translating the interview, which was in colloquial Arabic, into English. Even the notes that they took were in English. Schaub points out that these students are going to work for Egyptian newspapers, in which they should write in Arabic (205). Of course, he does not mean the colloquial “the written language used basically in all written communication in the Arab world”, which is the Modern Standard Arabic (205). Thus, the graduates of bilingual education are prepared to function in societies and careers in which the main language is English. In other words, “they are unable to function in their society”(Schaub 205). I believe that in the future I will have the same problem, as I am nearly illiterate in the Modern Standard Arabic. For example, I am unable to write letters in Arabic.

Mark Schaub made a survey in order to rate the writing abilities of the students and to know the reasons, which made them study English. He found that most of the students have higher writing abilities in English than their native language (206). I believe that students who graduate from a bilingual education system have higher writing abilities in English as my worst grade was in the Arabic course. Also, most of the students said that they learnt English as it is the language of the world or it is their parents’ desire. My parents applied for me in an English school as they thought it could be a kind of insurance for the future. I believe that it is the pressures within the society that pushes the people to choose English rather than their own language. All the people want to have a good job with a high salary; thus, learning English becomes the way to achieve that aim.
In the bilingual education system in Egypt, students are taught in a language that they do not understand; thus, they are deprived of having a good education. Reading and writing are only foundation elements; students are graded on their knowledge of science, history, literature, social studies and many other subjects. If they can not apply their language skills to master their academic success, they can not accomplish the aim of learning. Thus, educational programs must be designed to balance language proficiency and academic learning outcomes. That is why first language development facilitates second language acquisition. Thus, it is better for students to receive continuous instruction in their native language, besides acquiring another language as a second one.