Dictionary
of
Mining Engineering

Nihat
Alpin
Mtevellioolu
050990045
-A-
Adhesion : Holding surface together with an adhesive
Advance : The work of excavating as mining forward in an entry and in drivingrooms; to extract all or part of an ore
Agglomeration : A concentration process based on the adhesion of pulpparticles to water in ore benefaction
Alloy : A substance having metallic properties and being composed of two ormore chemical elements of which at least one is an element of metal
Amalgamation : The production of an amalgam or alloy of mercury
Anemometer : An instrument to measure the velocity of air
Anomaly : A body, which is much different in geological and mineral content than the surrounding formations
Antimony: A trivalent and pentavalent metallic element which is rather softusually in metallic silvery white, crystalline
Arches: A large building with a curved top over an opening, usually as amonument

-B-
Bagging : Flexible tubing for conducting compressed air, water, or steamsusually constructed from canvas and rubber
Ball mill : Mill which has balls inside that are used to crush big minerals
Ballast : Broken limestone pieces to carry mine track within its side
Baryte : A sulphate of Barium
Bell conveyor : A moving belt that rides on rollers and used to carry coal orother materials to various locations
Bench : A long seat; a strong on which mechanics prepare their work
Bentonite : A montmorillonite type clay formed by the alteration of volcanic ash
Blasting : Break up and destroy
Blind shaft : A small shaft driven between two galleries
Blister copper : An impure intermediate product in the refilling of copper
Boundary : A line between areas of the earth’s surface occupied by rocks or formations of different type and different age
Brittle : A mineralogical term meaning not flexible and ductile
-C-
Cage : The cabin in the shaft to carry men, mine cars and materials
Cave : A hollow place in earth
Ceramic : A class of inorganic, non-metallic products which are subjected to ahigh temperature during manufacture or in use
Clay : A fine-grained, natural, earthy material composed primarily of hydrous aluminium silicates
Combustible : A substance that can be easily set on fire or that readily takes fire and burns
Communition : The breaking, crushing, or grinding of coal, ore, or rock
Conveying : Transporting by conveyors from the orebody to the shaft
Copper : A reddish metallic element in group IB of the periodic table
Crushing : To reduce ore or quartz by stamps, crushers or rolls
Cut-off tenor : The lowest tenor for mining
Cutting machine : A power-driven machine used to undercut or shear the coal to facilitate its removal from the face
Cyclone : Refers to the conical shapes apparatus used in dust collectingoperations
-D-
Dam : A bank or mound raised to keep back
Debris : Rock fragments, sand, earth, and sometimes organic matter, in aheterogeneous mass, as at the foot of a cliff
Detonation : An explosion or sudden report made by the inflammation of certaincombustible bodies
Development : To open up a coal seam or orebody as by sinking shafts anddriving drifts, as well as installing the equipment needed
Dewatering : Removing water by pumping, drainage, or evaporation
Dilution : Mixing of ore with other material lowering the tenor of the ore
Discipline : Employee discipline implies subjection to authority or instructions given by a mine official
Dragline : A type of excavating equipment which costs a rope-hung bucket, aconsiderable distance, collects the dug material by pulling the buckettoward itself on the ground with a second rope, elevates the bucketand dumps the material on a spoil bank, in a hopper, or on a pile
Drilling : The act of process of making a circular hole with a drill
Dump : Combination of all waste materials which are useless
Dust : Earth or other matter reduced to small particles which can easily be raisedand carried by air
Dynamite : An industrial explosive which is detonated by blasting caps. Theprinciple explosive equipment is nitro-glycerine or specially sensitised ammonium nitrate
-E-
Earth : The solid matter of the globe in distinction from water and air; to theground; the firm land of the earth’s surface
Efficiency : The ratio of work output to work input
Environment : The aggregate of all the surrounding conditions, influences, orforce affecting a locus sedimentation
Excavation : Digging and removing soil
Explore : To search, develop or prospect
-F-
Fault : Breaking plane of a vein or seam
Fault line : The intersection of a fault surface or a fault plane with the surface of the earth or with any artificial surface of reference
Feldspar : One of a group of rock-farming minerals which includes microline,orthoclase, plagioclase and anorthoclase
Filtration : A process for separating solids from the liquid
Firedamp : Mixture of methane and air
Flint : A variety of quartz, a cryptocrystalline substance composed of silica
Flocculation : The gathering of suspended particles into aggregations
-G-
Gallery : An excavation carried from the shaft horizontally to reach the orebody
Gateway : A gallery driven horizontally to follow a seam or a vein
Geological reserve : An unknown reserve but the geological informationindicating the possibility of such reserve
Grinding : Size reduction of ore and other materials into idatively fine particles
-H-
Hand picking : Manual removal of ore from the soil
Haulage : Transportation of cars and miners horizontally
Headframe : Steel or concrete tower to carry the hoisting forces
Helmet : A covering which protects the head
Hoisting : Lifting something upwards from the earth
Humidity : The quantity of moisture in the air
Hydraulic Transport : Transportation of ore from the working places to theprocessing plant in pipes
-I-
Inclination : The angular depth of vein, bed and etc.; measure in degree fromthe horizontal plane
Incline: A gallery driven from the surface downward to reach the orebody at aninclination of 10-30 degrees
Isomorphism : The name given the phenomenon where two ro more minerals which are very similar in their chemical properties, crystallize in class of the same system of symmetry
-J-
Jigs : Devices which separates coal from foreign substances by the help of density using water
Junctions : Combination; the act or operating of joining
-L-
Level : Galleries driven from the shaft at different elevation
Locomotive : A car with an engine usually used to carry mine cars from oneplace to another on tracks
-M-
Magnetic separator : A machine which is used to separate magnetic mineralsfound in nonmagnetic substances
Malleable : Capable of being extended or shaped by beating with a hammer, forexample gold, silver etc
Metal : The pure element of a mineral, mostly having special physical andelectrical properties
Mine : Location and installation, from which ore is extracted and a saleableproduct is obtained
Mine car : A container holding the ore
Mineral : Any natural product having a chemical formula with proper physicalcharacteristics
-O-
Ore : A mass of valuable minerals from which a saleable product can beobtained
Orebody : A solid with enormous mass of ore which looks like a big rock
Outburst : The name applied to violent evolution of firedamp from working fact
Overflow : To come out in big mass
-P-
Panning : Washing earth or crushed rock in a pan by agitation with water toobtain the particles of greatest specific gravity in it
Parachute : A safety device to keep the cage or skip in the shaft in case of ropebreaking
Pelleziting : A method in which finely divided material is rolled in a drum or inan inclined disk so that theparticles cling together and roll up intosmall spherical pellets
Pillar : The area of coal or ore left to support thte overlying strata or hangingwall in a mine
Polymorphism : The property of presenting many forms, especially incrystallography the ability of certain substances to crystallizewith different ratios without changing chemical properties
Possible reserve : An orebody determined in one dimension. Mostly depth
Potential reserve : A proven reserve but not economic under the prevailingconditions
Power plants : Buildings that are producing electrical power
Probable reverse : An orebody determined in two dimensions; length, width.The depth isn’t fully determined
Profit : The money earned when you subscribe lost money from total earnings
Proven reserve : A visible reserve on which the tonnage, tennor, mineralogical investigation have been compiled
Pulp density : The amount of valid in a pulp ranging from 10 to 25 percent byweight in flotation
-R-
Railroad : The road or steel bars which carry mine cars
Raise : A gallery driven upward to make connection with the upper level
Ramp : A gallery of small inclination in spiral form
Recovery : The percentage of the recovered metal versus the total metal content of the ore
Refrigeration : Cooling of air before it gets more hot
Regulator : A sliding door opening to regulate the amount of air
Reservoir : A natural underground container of liquids, such as all or water and gases
Retreating longwall : First driving haulage road and airways to the boundary ofa track of coal and then mining it in a single face withoutpillars back and toward the shaft
Roadway : An underground platform
Rock : Naturally formed matter that is a part of the earth’s crust
Roof bolts : Long steel bolts driven into walls or roof of undergroundexcavations to strengthen the pinning of rock strata
Rope : A bunch of steel wires wound to carry the cage and the skip
-S-
Seam : Bed of coal or other mineral generally applied to large deposits of coal
Selective mining : A method of mining whereby ore of unwarranted high valueis mined in such manner as to make the low grade ore left inthe mine incapable of future profitable extraction
Shaft : Excavation usually carried vertically to reach lowest position of orebody
Shaking table : A table which eliminate the reduction by their density
Shovel : An instrument used for lifting earth or other loose substances
Skip : A large container to carry the ore to the surface inside the shaft
Slime table : A table for the treatment of slime; a buddle
Slury : A suspension in a liquid especially water of a solid
Spraying : The application of enamel slip or glaze to surface by using spraygun
Stope : Place where ore production is made
Stowing : The material brought from the surface or from other part of the mineto replace the ore taken out
Stripping : An excavation with power shovels in which the coal seams are laidbore by stripping of the surface soil and rock strata
Strontium : A bivalent metallic element in group II of the periodic system
-T-
Tailings : The parts, or a part, of any incoherent or fluid material separated asrefuse, or fluid material separated as refuse, or separately treated asinferior in quality
Tenor : The percentage of the valuable element in the reserve
Tie : Wooden or steel pieces on which the rails are placed
Tool grinder : One who grinds the cutting tools for stone working planers andclothes in stonework industry
Track : The system composed of rails, ties and ballast on which the mine carare rolled
-V-
Vein : A zone or belt of mineralised rock lying within boundaries clearlyseparating it from neighbouring rock
Ventilator : A mechanical apparatus for producing a current of air in
underground as a blowing or exhaust fan
Ventube : Flexible pipe which is used to convey the air blowing from a ventilator
Visible reserve : An orebody determined in all dimensions; depth, length, width,thickness
-W-
Wet cutting : A method of dust prevention in which water is delivered onto themoving cutter chain, through water pipes and is carried into the cutwhere it is intimately mixed with the cuttings
Wet drilling : Drill by using the pressure of water which is good for pretendingdust
Winder : An electrically driven winding engine for hoisting a cage or cages upvertically in a mine shaft
Winding : Vertical transport through the shaft
Winze : A gallery driven downward to make connection to the lower level


” Sentences with the words used in the dictionary including mining & related terms ”
-A-
Adhesion : 1) Adhesion is the work of holding surface
2) In adhesion the effect is produced by forces between molecules
3) Shearing resistance between soil and another material under zerois called adhesion
Advance : 1) To advance galleries either drilling, blasting or mechanicalexcavation method can be used
2) Role of advancing is very important in order to reach orebody
3) Mechanical gallery advancing is the most effective way in long distanced galleries
Agglomeration : 1) Agglomeration is a kind of a concentration process
2) Agglomeration also refers to briquetting, nodulizing, sintering, etc.


3) Agglomeration is based on adhesion of pulp particles towater
Alloy : 1) An alloy may be a compound of the metals
2) An alloy may be a solid mixture of the metals
3) An alloy may be a heterogeneouse mixture
Amalgation : 1) Gold is treated with mercury in order to obtain amalgam on thesurface
2) Amalgation process for gold is done to mix gold with mercury
3) The process by which mercury is alloyed with some other metalis called amalgation
Anemometer : 1) Speed of wind and other moving gases are measured using an anemometer
2) Anemometer consists of a small fan from 7.6 to 15.2 cm in diameter that is rotated by the air current
3) Anemometer is held in the mine airway for the exact number of minutes
Anomaly : 1) Drilling for economic mineral deposits might be conducted in the
area of a geophysical anomaly
2) In seismic usage anomaly is generally synonymous withsubsurface structure
3) A crystallographic anomaly is the lack of agreement between theapparent external symmetry of a crystal and the observed opticalproperties
Antimony : 1) Antimony is extracted from ore by roasting the ore and reducingwith carbon
2) Antimony expands on solidifying
3) Antimony can be found in element, oxide and sulphide forms
Arches : 1) Steel arches are used to support galleries
2) The steel arches are needed to carry forces applied by rocks

3) Supporting galleries with steel arches reduces the accident rate
-B-
Ball mill : 1) Ball mill is a type of a crusher which has balls inside
2) In order to crush big substances ball mills are used
3) Crushed particles of a given size range are placed in a ball mill
Ballast : 1) In railways ballast are used to support rails
2) Putting ballast under wooden ties is very important in rail laying
3) Broken rock pieces used in railways are called ballast
Baryte : 1) Natural barium oxide (BaSO4) is called baryte
2) Baryte is also used in medical industry in X-ray diagnosis
3) Baryte is usually found in a white crystalline powder form
Bell conveyor : 1) Bell conveyor is used in the transportation of materials insidemines & factories
2) Bell conveyors are the most efficient and cheapest way oftransport
3) Bell conveyors work with an angle between 0-17 degrees
Bench : 1) Mechanics prepare their work on benches
2) Benhes are a type of seats which are strong and long
3) Place where mechanics prepare their work is called bench
Bentonite : 1) Bentonite is a clay called material similar to fuller’s earth
2) Bentonite is formed by the alternation of volcanic ash
3) Bentonite is used to absorb oil and grease
Blasting : 1) Blasting is a method used in advancing
2) In blasting method different types of explosives are used
3) ANFO ( Amonium nitrate 94% + Fuel 6% ) is often used in blasting
Blind shaft : 1) Blind shaft is a kind of a shaft
2) Blind shaft is used between two levels
3) By enlarging a vertical drillhole blind shaft can be made
Blister copper : 1) Blister copper is produced by blowing copper matte in aconverter
2) Blistered copper ore is a reniform variety of chalcopyrite
3) The blister of copper are formed by gas escaping fromwithin copper
Boundary : 1) Films of one constituent of an alloy surrounding the crystals ofanother are called boundary films
2) A map created for the purpose of delineating a boundary line and the adjacent territory are called boundary maps
3) A major fault with a considerable displacemen is called boundary
fault
Brittle : 1) The quality of a material that leads to crack propagation withoutappreciable plastic deformation is called brittle
2) Chloritoid, basic silicate of aluminum, iron, and magnesium are some of the micas having brittle laminae
3) A nonductile material that fails catastrophically under dynamic loadingis called a brittle material
-C-
Cage : 1) Cages usually designed to take one or two cars per deck
2) There is a guide found to prevent cages from swinging and colliding
3) There is short prop or catch on which cage stands
Cave : 1) Collapse of the walls on root of a mine is called cave-in
2) A person whose hobby is to explore caves is a caver
3) A compact bended deposit of calcite or araginot ( cave marble ) can be found in caves
Ceramic : 1) Ceramic is any of a class of inorganic, nonmetallic products thatare subjected to a high temperature during manufacture or use
2) The work of ceramics is the pertaining to products or industriesinvolving the use of clay or other silicates
Clay : 1) Kaolinite and china clay are good examples of clay
2) Clay is a calss of complex silicate
3) Clay seam or gauge found along the sides of veins are called clay
course
Combustible : 1) Combustible gasess form a layer under the roof of a mineroadway
2) Combustible gases in mines are very dangerous and need to taken out
3) Methane is an example of combustible gases
Communition : 1) To obtain proper material size for machinery is purpose ofcommunition
2) To prepare material for marketing is a purpose ofcommunition
3) To provide a certain degree of liberation is a purpose ofcommunition
Conveying : 1) There are two types of conveying ; hydraulic, pneumaticconveying
2) Conveying is done by the help of compressed water or air
Copper : 1) Copper is used in steam boilers, eletric wire and in numerous alloys
2) Copper is the best conductor of electricity after silver
3) Copper is a free metal and unaffected by water or steam
Crushing : 1) In crushing process Roll, Cone, Impact and other cruchers areused
2) Crushing is a step in communition
3) Plant mills in mineral processing are also used in crushing
Cutting machine : 1) A machine powered by compressed air or electricity thatdrives a cutting chain or other device is called cutting machine
2) Coal-cutting machine that is an adaptation of a shortwallmachine
3) An undercutting machine electrically driven cuttingmachine used to make a cut about 3.0 m deep near thebottom of a coalbed
Cyclone : 1) Cyclones are the conical shaped apparatus used in dust collectingoperations and fine grinding applications
2) In principle, the cyclone varies the speed of air
3) There are two types of cyclones; wet, hydraulic cyclone
-D-
Dam : 1) Dam in needed to keep foul air or water, from mine workings
2) Dam can also isolate underground workings that are on fire
3) In a blast furnace the cast-iron plate supports the dam
Debris : 1) A dirt -filled bag used for pack walls and chocks is called debris bag
2) Debris consists of rock fragments, soil material, and sometimes organic matter
Detonation : 1) Simply detonation is an explosive decomposition or explosivecombustion reaction
2) There is pressure produced in the reaction zone of a detonation
3) Devices are used prevent a detonation initiated
Development : 1) Development is an intermediate stage between exploration and mining
2) Work to reach orebody is termed as development
Dewatering : 1) The mechanical separation of a mixture of coal and water intotwo parts is a kind of dewatering
2) A settling tank for clarifying washer circulating water is used indewatering
3) A screen is used in dewatering for the separation of water fromsolids
Dilution : 1) The contamination of ore with barren wall rock in stoping is calleddilution
2) The mixture of ore other substances in which grade is lowered is
termed as dilution
Discipline : 1) An engineer must be well disciplined
2) The mining engineering is the most disciplined profession afterthe military
3) Discipline is needed in order to protect the orders given inworking chain
Dragline : 1) A crane boom used with a drag bucket is dragline boom
2) An excavation system involving a dragline ; other draglineequipments is called dragline dredge
3) Operator of a scraper loading machine, known as a dragline iscalled drag loader
Drilling : 1) Wet drilling is one of the methods used in dust remedy
2) The diamond, rotary, percussion drillings are usen in mining operations
3) The drill holes are source of information which give lithology, water conditions, samples
Dump : 1) Dump is the point where a face conveyor discharges its coal into minecars
2) Trucks in surface mining and shuttle cars in underground mining is atype of dump equipment
3) A chain grabhook having a lever attachment for releasing it is used asa dumb equipment
Dust : 1) Dust level in a must be kept under 0.2 microns
2) To avoid from dust diseases workers must use masks
3) Spraying and suction machines can be helpful in order to protectworkers from dust
Dynamite : 1) Compositions that contain significant amounts of nitroglycerin butaren’t detonable and considered to be dynamite
2) The basic ingredient of dynamite is nitroglycerin
3) Dynamite is the most known & used explosive
-E-
Efficiency : 1) The ratio of work output to work input is calculated by efficiency
engineers
2) The weight of material correctly placed above or below thereference size, expressed as a percentage of the weight ofcorresponding material in the feed is the efficiency of sizing
3) The efficieny of airway is which the combined capital andoperating cost is minimal
Environment : 1) An evaluation of enviroment and conditions at a particularfacility or site is called enviromental audit
2) An analysis of enviroment which may involve baseline environmental analyses and data gathered with regard to zoological, botanical, geologic, and economic factors
3) In mining sector enviroment & conditions play an important
role
Excavation : 1) Excavation includes digging, blasting, breaking, loading, andhauling, either at the surface or underground
2) The grab, skimmer, trencher, rotary digger, bucket wheel, andgrader are variants of excavation machines
3) Cableway fitted with a bucket suitably designed for excavation
Explore : 1) Exploration is the first and main step of mining operations
2) Persons who works in exploring business is called prospectors
3) Exploration and evaluation process are related with each other
-F-
Fault : 1) In coal mining, a sudden thinning or disappearance of a coal seam iscalled fault
2) A fracture or a fracture zone in crustal rocks along which there hasbeen displacement of the two sides relative to one another parallel tothe fracture is named fault
3) Various descriptive names have been given to different kinds of faults
Fault line : 1) An escarpment that is the result of differential erosion along a faultline is scarp
2) Usually a straight valley follows the fault line
3) East face of the Sierra Nevada in California is na example of faultline scarp
Feldspar : 1) The general formula of feldspar is XY4 O8 where X can beBa,Ca,K,Na,NH4 and Y can be Al,B,Si
2) Constituting 60% of the Earth’s crust, feldspar occurs in all rocktypes
3) There is a washbox to clean small coal, in which the pulsating wateris made to pass through a layer of graded material such as feldspar
Filtration : 1) Filter loss and cake thickness constitute the determining factorsof filtration qualities
2) The process of filtration is activated by suction or pressure, and commonly includes filter aids
3) The products of filtration are clear liquid and a filter cake
Firedamp : 1) A stone, brick, or concrete airtight stopping to isolate anunderground fire is called firedamp
2) Firedamp play an important role in underground fire
3) Firedamp prevent the inflow of fresh air and the outflow of foulair
Flint : 1) Lots of devices, formerly used to provide light for miners at workusing flint
2) A smooth, flint like refractory clay rock is named flint-clay
3) Dark gray or black variety of chert is known as flint
Flocculation : 1) Adding an electrolyte to suspension is the main step offlocculation
2) Agents of flocculation usually consist of long chain polymers,both natural and synthetic
3) The joining of soil colloids into a small group of soil particles,or the deposition or settling out of suspension of clay particlesin salt water are examples of flocculation
-G-
Gallery : 1) Galleries are horizontal or nearly horizontal underground passages
2) A subsidiary passage in a cave at a higher level than the mainpassage can be called gallery

Gateway : 1) A road or way underground for air, water, or general passage iscalled gateway
2) Gateway is also called gate road, main brow, trail road
Grinding : 1) There are two types of grinding; wet, dry grinding
2) An additive (aid) to the charge in a ball mill or rod mill toaccelerate the grinding process
3) There are three main types of grinding mills; ball, rod, and tubemills
-H-
Hand picking : 1) In hand picking method up to 30% of waste rock is removed
2) In hand picking method removal of wastes take lots of time
3) In some mines hand picking method is used to collect coal
Haulage : 1) In haulage cars are for surface or mine shaft operations and used tocarry ore and equipment to and from the digging site
2) In the early days chains were used in haulage in and around mines
3) A worker fully employed on the haulage system in a mine is calledhaulage hand
Headframe : 1) Headframe is also called gallows frame, hoist frame, headstocks
2) Headframe includes all the raised structure around the shaft thatis used for loading and unloading cages
3) Headframe is found at the top part of the shaft
Helmet : 1) There are lamps connected to helmets
2) Helmets are the main safety devices in mines
Hoisting : 1) The section of a mine shaft used for hoisting the mineral to thesurface is called hoistling compartment
2) Winding in a mine is a kind of hoisting
3) The capacity of the hoisting mechanism on a drill machine in termsof kilograms, tons is named hoisting powder
Humidity : 1) The water-vapor content of the atmosphere is called humidity
2) Humidity can be expressed as the mass of water per unit and percentage, ratio
3) There are two types of humidity; absolute, relative humidity
Hydraulic Transport : 1) Hydraulic transport includes hydraulic hoisting
2) Long distance pipeline used for hydraulic transport ofcoal, gilsonite, copper concentrates and similarmaterials
3) Hydraulic transport is a continious tranport system
which is especially used in large coal mines
-I-
Inclination : 1) Inclinator is the instrument to determine the inclination of themagnetic field
2) As the maximum angle is approached in inclination, the rate ofhandling of bulk material is usually decreased
3)Declination and inclination are similar to each other

Incline: 1) An incline shaft sunk at an inclination from the vertical, usuallyfollowing the dip of a lode
2) Plane, whether above or beneath the surface is incline ( slope)
Isomorphism : 1) Carbonate minerals of the aragonite group are good exampleof isomorphous minerals
2) Having similar crystalline form is called isomorphism

-J-
Jigs : 1) Self-acting inclined track used to lower filled coal tubs and raise emptyis called jig brow
2) In jigs the difference in specific gravity, in a pulsating water medium areused
3) A pin is used in jigs to prevent the turning of the turn beams
Junctions : 1) In ventilation surveys, where three or more airways meet is calledjunction
2) The union of two lodes is a junction
3) Junction is the point where two or more passageways intersecthorizontally or vertically
-L-
Level : 1) Levels are commonly spaced at regular depth intervals and are eithernumbered from the surface or designated by their elevation below thetop of the shaft
2) In pitch mining, there may be a number of levels driven from the sameshaft, each being known by its depth from the surface or by the nameof the bed or seam in which it is driven
3) In speleology, a series of related passageways in a cave, occurring atthe same relative, vertical position is called level
Locomotive : 1) The locomotive may be powered by battery, diesel,
compressed air
2) Locomotive are used to move empty and loaded mine cars inand out of the mine
-M-
Magnetic separator : 1) The crushed material is conveyed on a belt past amagnet and separated by magnetic separator
2) In magnetic separator the difference of magnetism ofsubstances are used for separation
3) Magnetic separator is very important in the process ofbeneficiation of iron ore
Malleable : 1) Copper and gold are mallable minerals
2) Minerals are malleable when slices cut from them may beflattened out under a hammer
3) Mineral which can be plastically deformed under compressivestress is mallable
Metal : 1) Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity
2) Metals are malleable and ductile, possesses high melting and boilingpoints, and tends to form positive ions in chemical compounds
Mine : 1) There are severel kinds of mines such as ore, metal, or coal
2) The term mine is applied to underground workings having a roof ofundisturbed rock
3) The terms mine and coal mine are intended to signify any and all partsof the property of a mining plant, either on the surface or underground
Mine car : 1) There are six types of mine cars; The solid or box type, rollerdump type, gable bottom car, the Grandy car, bottom dump carand end dump car
2) Mine cars are loaded at production points and hauled to the pitbottom or surface in a train by locomotives or other power
Mineral : 1) Any natural resource extracted from the earth for human use iscalled mineral
2) Ores, salts, coal, or petroleum are some examples of minerals
3) In flotation, valuable mineral constituents of ore as opposed togangue minerals
-O-
Ore : 1) The term ores is sometimes applied collectively to opaque accessoryminerals
2) Zone of rock rich in ore is called ore band
Orebody : 1) Values of ore body is found by evaluation process
2) Exploration is donr to locate orebody
Outburst : 1) The occurrence of outburst is violent and may overwhelm theworkings and fill the entire district with gaseous mixtures
2) Floor burst is a type of outburst generally occurring in longwallfaces and preceded by heavy weighting due to floor lift
Overflow : 1) A system fitted to a drag suction hopper dredge which dispersesentrained gases from the overflow in a settling tank and dischargesthe degassed overflow below the surface is called antiturbitiyoverflow system
-P-
Panning : 1) Panning is a technique of prospecting for heavy metals
2) In panning the lighter fractions are washed away, leaving the heavymetals behind
3) Panning process is for heavy metals such as gold, etc.

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Parachute : 1) Parachute is a safety device used in shafts
2) In the case of rope breakage parachute reduces the velocity offall
3) Parachutes can be installed to shafts
Pelleziting : 1) Pelletizing is a step in agglomeration process
Pillar : 1) Pillars are normally left permanently to support the surface or to keepold workings water tight
2) The area of the shaft pillar is considerably greater than the surface arearequiring protection
3) Any large pillar entirely or relatively unbroken by roadways or airwaysthat is left around a property to protect it against water is called barrierpillar
Polymorphism : 1) Polymorphism limited to two or three crystal classes isdimorphism or trimorphism
2) To crystallize in more than one crystal class is calledpolymorphism
3) Graphite, diamond, chaoite, and lonsdaleite are examples ofpolymorphious elements
Power plants : 1) Power plants produce energy for mine ; other facilities
2) Any device or machine which converts energy into some form of useful power, such as mechanical or electric power is called power plant
Profit : 1) The ratio of profit is important in order to operate the mine
2) Simply profit is the money gained from a business
Pulp density : 1) Pulp density is used in mineral processing
2) Pulp density has a marked effect on the recovery and grade ofconcentrate
3) if 5 cm3 of pulp weighs 15 g, then the pulp density is 3 g/cm3
-R-
Railroad : 1) Usually railroads are used for transportation in mines
2) Mine cars are carried by railroad
3) Railroad is made of rails which form a track
Raise : 1) Raise climber is an equipment used in an opening
2) Excavating a shaft or steep tunnel upward is the process of raise
3) The connection of two level may be a winze or a raise
Ramp : 1) An incline connecting two levels in an open pit or underground mineis called ramp
2) Ramp is a portion of a thrust fault that cuts across formationalcontacts in a short distance
Recovery : 1) A plant designed for separating diamond particles fromconcentrate by various processes is a recovery plant
2) Recovery is a measure of mining or extraction efficiency.
3) Recovery is the percentage of valuable constituent derived froman ore
Refrigeration : 1) A surface plant to form the protective barrier of frozenground in the freezing method of shaft sinking is calledrefrigeration plant
2) Refrigeration is in special application to mining, cooling of airbefore release in lowest levels of deep, hot mine
3) The process of absorption of heat from one location and itstransfer to and rejection at another place is called refrigeration
Regulator : 1) Regulator is a ventilating device
2) Regulators are usually set in doors as adjustable, slidingpartitions that can be varied to the desired opening
3) Where possible, regulators are located on the exhaust side of asplit to minimize interference with traffic
Roadway : 1) Roadway is an underground drivage
2) Roadway is not steeply inclined
3) Roadway may form part of longwall or bord-and-pillar workings
Rock : 1) An aggregate of one or more minerals is called rock
2) Granite, shale, marble are examples of rock
3) In geology, the material that forms the essential part of the Earth’s solidcrust is names as rock
Roof bolts : 1) Roof bolting consists of steel rods
2) A long steel bolt inserted into walls or roof of underground iscalled roof bolt
3) A steel plate, sometimes in combination with wooden headers orsteel straps are used in roof bolts
Rope : 1) The rope should be inspected daily, weekly
2) The life of rope is maximum two years
3) In a rope there are six or more strands
-S-
Seam : 1) Seam is generally applied to large deposits of coal
2) A thin layer or stratum of rock separating two distinctive layers of different composition or greater magnitude is also called seam
3) A seam in a coalbed is at which the different layers of coal are easilyseparated
Selective mining : 1) The object of selective mining is to obtain a relatively high- grade mine product
2) In general, selective mining methods are applicable wherethe valuable sections of the deposit are rather large,comparatively few in number, and separated by relativelylarge volumes of waste
3) In coal mining, selective methods may be dictated bymarket demands and prices
Shaft : 1) A shaft is provided with a hoisting engine at the top for handlingworkers, rock, and supplies
2) Shaft may be used only in connection with pumping or ventilating operations
3) A specially armored cable of great mechanical strength is used in theshaft
Shaking table : 1) In shaking table lateral shaking motion is given by means of asmall crank or an eccentric
2) Shaking table is shaken rapidly in a compounded to-and-fromotion by a vibrator
3) In ore dressing, flattish tables oscillated horizontally duringseparation of minerals fed onto shaking tables
Shovel : 1) Shovel is any bucket equipped machine used for digging and loadingearthy or fragmented rock materials
2) There are two types of shovels, the square-point and the round-point
3) Shovels are available with either long or short handles
Skip : 1) The skip is mounted within a carrying framework
2) There is a bucket used for containing the material conveyed by a skip
3) Skip can also be adapted for personel riding
Slime table : 1) Slime table is used for the treatment of slime
2) Slime table is an equipment used in sliming
Spraying : 1) Spraying is a kind of remedy against dust
2) The spraying machine is mounted on wheels and operated bycompressed air
3) Spraying may be used for limewashing
Stope : 1) A stope is the very antithesis of a shaft, tunnel, drift, winze, or othersimilar excavation in a mine
2) Stope, a room which is a wide working place in a flat mine
Stowing : 1) Stowing is a method of mining in which all the material of the vein isremoved
2) In stowing the waste is packed into the space left by the working
Strontium : 1) Strontium is found as celestite (SrSO4 ) and strontianite (SrCO3 )
2) Strontium is majorly is used for color television picture
3 )Strontium is a silvery white, alkaline earth metal
-T-
Tailings : 1) Tailings are used in washing,concentration, treatment of ground ore
2) Tailings machine is for sifting the tailings
Tenor : 1) Tenor ( grade ) is a coal classification based on degree of purity
2) The relative quantity or the percentage of ore-mineral or metal content in an orebody is termes as tenor
3) Tenor is the classification of an ore according to the desired or worthless material in it or according to value
Tie : 1) Ties are one of the transverse supports to which railroad rails arefastened to keep them to line, gauge, and grade
2) Ties are made of either steel or wood
Track : 1) Track cable is a steel wire rope, usually a locked-coil rope thatsupports the wheels of mine cars
2) All railroad system and equipments in a mine is called track
-V-
Vein : 1) A mineral deposit, usually steeply inclined can be called vein
2) Also a narroy water way or a stream of water flowing in such a channelis a vein
Ventilator : 1) Ventilators are a mechanical apparatus for producing a current ofair underground
2) Blowing or exhaust fan are some examples of ventilators
3) A small fan installed underground for ventilating coal faces orhard rock headings are called ventilation fans ( ventilators)
Ventube : 1) Ventubes are made of steel, fiberglass, or coated fabric with thinwalls that can be easily connected
2) Ventubes are used in mine ventilation to lead air wherever it isneeded

-W-
Wet cutting : 1) Wet cutting is a method of dust prevention
2) Wet cutting method is successful in seams up to1.22 m thick
3) In wet cutting water is delivered onto a moving cutter chain,through water pipes, and is carried into the cut where it isintimately mixed with the cuttings
Wet drilling : 1) Wet drilling is needed to allay dust and danger ofpneumoconiosis
2) In rock drilling for blasting purposes, injection of water througha hollow drill is used and termes as wet drilling
Winder : 1) Winder brake is an appliance or piece of equipment capable ofretarding or stopping cages in a shaft in an emergency
2) An electrically driven winding engine for hoisting a cage or cages up a vertical mine shaft is called winder
Winding : 1) The operation of hoisting coal, ore, miners, or materials in a shaftis called winding
2) The machinery and equipment used to lower and raise loadsthrough a shaft are winding apparatus
Winze : 1) When one is standing at the top of a completed connection theopening is referred to as a winze
2) A vertical opening driven downward connecting two levels in a mineis called winze
3) Winze is a connection between two levels