North and South

The Pre-dawning of an American Tragedy
Economic, Social and Political Institutions
The Eastern regions of the United States experienced tremendous economic and social growth during the first decades of the nineteenth century. Encouraged by waves of work-hungry immigrants, business-friendly laws, and the promises of a resource-rich land, businessmen invested mightily in their schemes and plans for settling the new country before them.
The American economy enjoyed unprecedented growth for much of the 1800s. Capital, resources, land, and foreign labor were plentiful, and all these factors combined to engender fertile economic conditions for new generations of entrepreneurs and businessmen. Economic growth was also aided by the country’s emerging legal system, which was fiercely protective of private property and determined to enforce contractual agreements.
As the nineteenth century progressed, two distinct economic systems emerged in the North and South. In the North, the opening of the Merrimack Manufacturing Company in Massachusetts in 1823 marked the introduction of the English factory system to America. This triggered the rapid development of a manufacturing-based economy in the North, an economy that was further buoyed by improved transportation options and increased harvesting of raw materials. Fledgling labor organizations began to sprout up as well in the latter part of the 1830s.
In the early 1800s, the nation’s woeful road system quickly gave way to water transportation. The latter option was aided immeasurably by the construction of the Erie Canal (1817-1825), which linked the New York canal system to Lake Erie at Buffalo and opened the Great Lakes region to commerce, as well as the development of the St. Lawrence Sea way, a series of canals, dams, and locks along the U.S.-Canadian border which allowed travel from the Gulf of St. Lawrence in the Atlantic to the Great Lakes. Thousands of miles of canals were built throughout the first half of the nineteenth century; most of them financed by state and local governments. The canal and river systems, though, eventually gave way to the “Iron Horse”-the locomotive. Railway lines proliferated and became the preferred mode of delivery. Railroads also proved essential to the development of the nation’s ever-expanding western borders, and railroad hubs in cities such as Chicago were quickly established to transport crops of the plains back to eastern markets. By 1860 more than thirty thousand miles of railroad track had been laid–nearly as much as in the rest of the world combined.
In the South, meanwhile, the region’s economy was fused to the institution of slavery. Agricultural in nature, Southern business interests relied on slaves to harvest the cash crops (especially cotton) that were sold to customers in urban and industrial markets. As abolitionist pressures from the North grew, slave-holders grew increasingly concerned.
Two issues dominated American politics in the first part of the nineteenth century: expansion and slavery. Perhaps inevitably, the two issues became tangled together over time, a development that contributed to the slide toward war that nearly tore the nation apart.
After America’s ill-fated attempt to annex Canada, the country turned its expansionist attention to the west. In the 1840s America wrested the republic of Texas and another large region (which included modern-day California, Nevada, Utah, and most of New Mexico and Arizona) away from Mexico. The mountains, deserts, and forests that comprised these territories were hundreds of miles away from the eastern United States, but their acquisition nonetheless had a tremendous impact on the relationship between the established Northern and Southern states.
As the United States continued its expansion, it became increasingly difficult for it to maintain its balancing act between the North and the South regarding slavery. As new states and territories joined the nation, debate over whether they should be admitted as “slave states” was furious. The Missouri Compromise of 1820 (which secretary of state and future president John Quincy Adams perceptively called the “title page to a great tragic volume”), the Compromise of 1850, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 were all engineered in the hopes of satisfying both sides, but these legislative efforts ultimately failed. Abolitionists continued to rage against the enslavement of blacks, while Southern states felt that the balance of power in Congress between slave and non-slave states was being gradually eroded. The Supreme Court’s Dred Scott decision (1857) further heightened tensions between the North and South.
During the first half of the nineteenth century, political parties evolved in accordance with patterns of ethnicity, religion, region, and economic class. Leading political parties included the Jeffersonian (National) Republicans, who favored high tariffs and the institution of a national bank; the Whigs, a party that grew out of the National Republican Party and several smaller political factions; and the Jacksonian Democrats–named after party giant Andrew Jackson–who held sway from 1829 to the dawn of the Civil War.
The issue of slavery, however, finally caused the Democrats, traditionally a coalition of various economic and ethnic groups, to splinter. The two groups each fielded a candidate for the 1860 presidential election, but the anti-slavery Republicans of the North were able to push Abraham Lincoln to the presidency despite the fact that he won only 39 percent of thepopular vote (and only two counties in all of the South). His election further convinced the South that separation from the Union was necessary.
American law and interpretations of justice underwent dramatic transformation in the first half of the nineteenth century. American law was based in large measure on English common law, but U.S. politicians, lawyers, and communities shaped and altered that foundation to address uniquely American issues such as land settlement.
The country’s fledgling court system showed little inclination to use law as a device to enforce Christian concepts of morality, instead devoting its attention to the issues of property, business, and commercial contracts. As judicial decisions proliferated, they formed a body of case law that often addressed questions not yet discussed by the country’s legislative arms. “Instead of upholding the ideal of a stable and balanced social order,” noted the authors of The Great Republic, “the law gave increasing priority to economic growth,” encouraging individual enterprise, initiative, and competition.
Several legal decisions rendered during the first half of the nineteenth century had an enduring impact on both the nature of the American legal system and the sociological landscape of thecountry. In 1803 the Supreme Court’s decision in the case of Marbury v. Madison, authored by Chief Justice John Marshall, established the judicial branch’s authority to invalidate federal laws that it deemed unconstitutional, a power that has been invoked with significant effect in the ensuing two centuries of America’s history. Other Supreme Court decisions (such as McCulloch v. Maryland in 1819 and Cohens v. Virginia in 1821) asserted the sovereignty of federal law over state law, thus strengthening the hand of Congress and confirming the power of the Constitution.
Another landmark legal decision reflected America’s struggle with the issue of slavery. The 1857 Dred Scott decision, which denied the appeal of a slave who petitioned for freedom on the grounds of his extended stints in “free” territory, further inflamed passions concerning the subject, and many scholars argue that the decision made the Civil War inevitable.
The sociological make-up of the American people underwent a dramatic transformation in the first half of the nineteenth century. The first Americans–overwhelmingly British and Protestant–were joined by an ever-widening range of emigrants from Poland, Germany, Ireland, and other European countries with different political views and religious faiths. These newcomers embraced the uniquely American vision of the young country as a place of opportunity and possibility. Most of these immigrants settled in the cities of the North, where factories were an increasing presence in theeconomy. The Irish, who accounted for more than 40 percent of the immigrants to America in the 1840s, were forced to contend with sometimes violently anti-Catholic feelings in their new land, but they nonetheless managed to accumulate significant political power in major Northern cities. By 1860 eight cities had swelled to populations of more than 150,000; only seven cities in all of England were of that size. Despite the surge in immigrants, however, most Americans continued to live in rural areas; this was especially true in the South. In 1860 four out of five Americans lived on farms or in communities of less than 2,500. The influx of immigrant families, coupled with the growing size of American family units, resulted in a nation in which children were seemingly everywhere. By 1830, nearly one-third of the country’s white population was under the age of ten.
Other events during this period had an enduring impact on American society as well. In 1848 more than two hundred women and men met at Seneca Falls, New York, to hold a conference on women’s rights. This convention, which charged that women should have the same rights as men in the realms of voting, education, employment, and property ownership, is commonly regarded as the birthplace of the American women’s movement.
Native American tribes east of the Mississippi River, meanwhile, saw their cultures uprooted and discarded by the steadily encroaching white population. Some tribes were housed on reservations located on unfamiliar land, while others fled in search of land where they might be left undisturbed. Even tribes that sought to adopt “civilized” ways were swept away. A notorious example of this was the removal of the Cherokee nation to Oklahoma during the winter of 1838-39. This journey, in which many members of the tribe perished, became known as “The Trail of Tears.” But all the Indian nations were victimized. Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminole from the South and northern tribes such as the Ottawa, Huron, and Miami were all dislocated. These refugees eventually met on the western side of the Mississippi, land of the proud Plains Indians.
The American medical establishment continued to look to Europe for guidance in understanding the human body, but individual Americans did provide notable contributions. Philip Syng Physick is generally acknowledged as the man who established surgery as a specialty in America, while Daniel Drake was a tremendously influential educator. In addition, the author Oliver Wendell Holmes was the first to recognize that puerperal (childbed) fever was a contagious malady.
Both European and American physicians of the early nineteenth century supported general regimens of “diet, exercise, rest, baths and massage, bloodletting, scarification, cupping, blistering, sweating, emetics, purges, enemas, and fumigations,” according to Medicine: An Illustrated History. “There were multitudes of plant and mineral drugs available, but only a few rested on sound physiological or even empiric foundations.”
The threat of diseases such as yellow fever (which killed thirteen thousand people in the Mississippi Valley in 1843), cholera, and smallpox continued to terrorize the American people, but these maladies proved even more deadly to Native Americans who came into contact with whites. Smallpox epidemics decimated entire tribes of Indians, whose immune systems were particularly vulnerable to such unfamiliar diseases.
Steadily accumulating knowledge did gradually translate into longer life spans. The cities of the East, though, were burdened by overcrowding and wretched sanitary conditions. They became breeding grounds for infectious diseases such as tuberculosis; in the late 1850s, American cities had the highest death rates in the world. Rural communities across the country, meanwhile, often relied on midwives for medical attention, especially in the area of child delivery. Women’s efforts to gain further medical education were thwarted at seemingly every turn, and few women were able to obtain advanced degrees. Finally, however, the Female Medical College of Pennsylvania–the first women’s medical school–was established in 1850.
Nineteenth-century America featured a wide array of religious faiths that served as a unifying element for communities across the country. The evangelical zeal that swept the country in the first part of the 1800s was especially evident in such regions as Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee, home to pioneers who used religion as a central building block in the creation of communities. Fledgling Methodist and Baptist denominations proved adept at speaking to the common populace, and this ability vaulted them past older Protestant faiths to become the largest denominations in America by 1820.
As freedom of religion became entrenched as a core principle of the American idea, new religions without Old World ties popped up, and existing denominations continued to splinter. But while these faiths differed in various respects, they were unified in their passion for America and took pains to emphasize that the country was a nation inextricably intertwined with God.
As the century progressed, religious revivalism assumed ever-greater importance all across the nation. Religious practices, however, were shaped by regional interests and viewpoints. This led most Southern churches to deny that slavery was an immoral practice in Christian society; failure to defend the practice might, in fact, threaten a church’s very survival. Conversely, many leading abolitionists of the era were Quakers or other religious figures from the North who charged that the practice of slavery was an abominable violation of the tenets of the Christian faith. Free blacks, meanwhile, weary of discrimination in both the South and the North, formed their own “African” churches. These were primarily Baptist or Methodist denominations.
At the same time that this growth in religion was taking place, American audiences of the nineteenth century became fascinated by science and technological advancement, which they saw as key weapons in the battle to tame nature and construct better lives for themselves. Attempts to understand the human mind and other intangible aspects of existence received great attention as well. This interest contributed to the popularity of phrenology, a practice wherein a person’s character could allegedly be determined by an examination of the form and shape of the person’s head. The theory of evolution espoused in Englishman Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species (1859), meanwhile, set off a huge controversy on both sides of the Atlantic.
Inventions proved to be of tremendous importance as well. Steam locomotives chugged across the nation’s rail lines by the 1830s, accelerating the development of America’s transportation infrastructure, and 1839 marked the first appearance of vulcanized rubber, the invention of Charles Goodyear. Other notable inventions included Samuel Morse’s telegraph (1844), Elias Howe and Isaac M. Singer’s sewing machines (1846 and 1850), and the Bessemer method of steel production (1856) developed by English inventor and industrialist Henry Bessemer.
Perhaps no era in America history has left so indelible a mark on the nation’s psyche as the Civil War that tore through the country from 1861 to 1865. For years the Northern and Southern regions of the United States had crafted compromise legislation intended to patch up the lengthening philosophical rifts between the two sides, but by the 1850s many people on both sides felt that their differences on such issues as slavery could not be reconciled. The election of Abraham Lincoln to the country’s presidency in 1860 struck Southerners as a direct threat to their way of life, and they quickly embarked on a course of secession. Lincoln, though, was determined to preserve the Union by any means necessary. The result was war. “Entirely unimaginable before it began,” wrote Ric Burns and Ken Burns in The Civil War, “the war was the most defining and shaping event in American history-so much so that it is now impossible to imagine what we would have been like without it.”
By the middle of the nineteenth century, slavery was entrenched in the agriculture-based Southern economy (cotton, the South’s single biggest crop, accounted for three-quarters of all U.S. exports in 1850). Bondage had long been an institution in the South, but with the explosion of cotton production following the invention of the cotton gin in 1793, slavery became even more important. In addition, capital investment in slaves was a
central part of the South’s economic structure by the mid-1800s.
Many slaves were held on giant plantations, and some wealthy slave-holders owned hundreds of blacks. These families were able to lead lives of leisure up in the plantation house while their slaves toiled in the surrounding cotton fields. This dynamic spurred the birth of an aristocratic sort of lifestyle for rich whites. “The plantation ideal more than ever dominated the South,” wrote Arthur Charles Cole in The Irrepressible Conflict. “To become a large planter was the aspiration of every ambitious youth…. The planter-aristocrat on his broad acres represented a leisure class that was genial, picturesque
Blacks, of course, viewed the practice of slavery quite differently. Though their numbers were nearly equal to the white population in the South-in 1860 four million blacks and five and a half million whites populated the eleven states that eventually seceded–their status as human chattel precluded them from exercising any control over their lives or the lives of their families. “A slave entered the world in a one-room dirt-floored shack,” wrote Geoffrey C. Ward in The Civil War. “Drafty in winter, reeking in summer, slave cabins bred pneumonia, typhus, cholera, tuberculosis. The child who survived to be sent to the fields at twelve was likely to have rotten teeth, worms, dysentery, malaria. Fewer than four out of one hundred slaves lived to be sixty.” Sold on the auction block, forbidden to read or write, subject to the whims of their masters, generations of slaves worked the hot fields of the South as voiceless cogs in the region’s agrarian machine.
In the Northern states of America, meanwhile, voices calling for abolition of the institution of slavery had grown progressively louder during the first half of the nineteenth century. By the1850s, most citizens were quite familiar with the living conditions in which blacks were forced to live in the South; they had been educated by an avalanche of abolitionist mailing campaigns, door-to-door visits, pamphlets, and meetings, all of which castigated Slave-holding as a shameful and wicked practice. Southerners, though, were defiant. This defiance could be traced in large measure to economic concerns, but Southerners also resented abolitionists’ appropriation of the moral high ground in the debate. After the 1831 Nat Turner Rebellion, in which Turner, a black freeman, led a slave revolt in Virginia that resulted in the deaths of fifty-seven whites, apologists for slavery defended the practice with renewed vigor, even going so far as to call it a good and moral institution.
The growing tension between North and South was evident in the nation’s political arena as well. As Western lands were brought into the Union, Southern congressmen jockeyed to have them admitted as slave states; Northerners, on the other hand, sought to include them as “free” states where
In the 1850s the government cobbled together a number of notable agreements designed to prevent a rupture in the Union. In the Compromise of 1850, the United States turned its attention to Western territories gained in the War with Mexico a few years before; California was admitted as a free state and slavery was prohibited in the District of Columbia, but the legislation called for state citizenry to determine the presence or absence of slavery in New Mexico and Utah, a principle known as popular sovereignty. The Compromise also included a controversial new Fugitive Slave Act that enabled slave owners to retrieve runaway slaves more easily from the North. Only four years later, however, a new law left the uneasy truce of 1850 broken in the dust.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 jettisoned the 1820 Missouri Compromise (which had outlawed slavery in territories north of Missouri’s southern boundary), calling instead for an arrangement wherein territories seeking statehood were left to decide for themselves whether to allow slavery within their respective borders. The Act outraged many Northerners and sparked the dissolution of the Whig Party and the creation of the Republican Party (largely composed of Whig Party remnants and Northern Democrats who were unhappy with their party’s pro-South stance). By 1860 the South viewed the Republican Party, which boasted a number of important abolitionist voices, as a direct threat to their way of life.
The 1854 legislation also resulted in bloodshed and escalating ill will between America’s Northern and Southern blocs. In 1855, when Kansans were called on to vote on whether to allow slavery, thousands of pro-slavery Missourians poured into Kansas to vote illegally. While the majority of the actual natives of Kansas were “free-soilers” opposed to slavery, the votes of the Missourians enabled slavery supporters to gain control of the territorial legislature. Furious free-soilers defiantly formed their own legislature and petitioned for admittance into the United States as a free state. Violence broke out between pro- and anti-slavery factions all along the Missouri-Kansas border, and the badly splintered nation’s spiral toward civil war accelerated.
Congressmen took to arming themselves before attending sessions of Congress, and in May 1856 House member Preston Brooks, a Southerner, violently beat Republican Charles Sumner in the Senate chambers after the latter gave a speech that included a stinging rebuke of slaveholders (Sumner was unable to return to his job for three years). The ugly incident further inflamed passions between the two sides, as Southern papers hailed Brooks as a defender of Southern honor and Northern commentators castigated him as the inevitable product of a region made mean and corrupt by slavery.
In 1857 the Supreme Court–which had a Southern majority at the time–ruled that Congress had no power to limit slavery in the Western territories. This decision, known as the Dred Scott case in reference to the slave who brought the suit, also held that blacks–whether free or enslaved-were inferior beings who could not hold U.S. citizenship, and ruled that slaves were the property of their owners no matter whether they had ever resided in
The Dred Scott decision further aggravated sectionalism and galvanized abolitionists, who felt that the decision might extend slavery. “To the utter amazement of the abolitionists,” wrote Alan Axelrod and Charles Phillips in What Every American Should Know about American History, “the court had invoked the Bill of Rights in a ruling that denied freedom to a black slave. For the southern slave-owners, the decision implied that slavery was safe–and according to the reading should be protected–everywhere in the nation.”
In 1860, though, disagreement within the Democratic Party over slavery led to a formal split between the two wings. Northern Democrats nominated Stephen Douglas for the presidency of the United States, while John C. Breckenridge was the nominee of the Southerners. The Republicans, meanwhile, nominated the moderate Abraham Lincoln, who was able to secure the presidency by carrying the North. The South viewed Lincoln’s ascension to the highest position in the land as an unmitigated disaster. One Southern paper called his election the greatest evil ever to befall the country, and he was burned in effigy in town squares across the South. Of greater import, however, was the reaction of the South Carolina legislature: they called for a convention to discuss seceding from the Union.
After years of negotiation and compromise, both sides sensed that confrontation was inevitable. Other issues were important factors in the Civil War–property rights, states’ rights, Southern disaffection with the might of the Northern industrial economy–but slavery was the major issue, and the very nature of the institution precluded satisfactory compromise. As Lincoln once wrote to a Southern politician, “You think slavery is right and ought to be extended; while we think it is wrong and ought to be restricted. That I suppose is the rub. It certainly is the only substantial difference between us.”
On December 20, 1860, South Carolina announced its secession from the United States. Other slave-holding states followed, citing the supremacy of states’ rights over federal law. Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana all left the Union before Lincoln’s March 1861 inauguration. Texas followed suit as well, ignoring the words of Governor Sam Houston, who was removed from office for his efforts to keep the state in the Union:
“Let me tell you what is coming…. Your fathers and husbands, your sons and brothers, will be herded at the point of the bayonet…. I tell you that, while I believe with you in the doctrine of States’ Rights, the North is determined to preserve this Union.”
In February 1861 delegations from the seven seceding states met in Alabama and drafted a Confederate Constitution. Jefferson Davis was elected president of the new Confederate States of America. In the following months–as the first blood of the American Civil War was shed–Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina joined their fellow slave-holding states under the Confederate Flag.
In April 1861 Confederate forces fired on a Union garrison at Fort Sumter, located in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. This attack is regarded as the opening engagement of the Civil War (or the War between the States, as it was known in the South). Lincoln responded with a naval blockade. Avenues of discussion seemed exhausted; the North would have to preserve the Union by force.
The North did have some significant advantages. “Omitting the deeply divided border states of Kentucky and Missouri,” observed Robert Paul Jordan in The Civil War, “five and a half million white Southerners faced a total white population of some twenty million. The Union boasted more than eight out of ten factories, more than 70 percent of railroad mileage, all the fighting ships, and most of the money. What the South did have was faith and a consummate will to fight: faith in its cause and the will that springs like a well of strength when one’s homeland must be defended.” The South also had General Robert E. Lee, a brilliant military strategist who outmaneuvered Union forces for much of the war.
The Union Army’s early bid to capture Richmond, Virginia, the Confederate capital, was foiled by their defeat at Bull Run in July 1861, one of several early Confederate victories. Union forces returned to the same region a year later, only to be driven into retreat by Lee-led rebel forces in the Seven Days’ Battle. Seizing the momentum, Lee made a push for Maryland and Pennsylvania that was checked by Union General George B. McClellan in September 1862 (this clash featured a September 17 battle at Antietam Creek in Maryland that proved to be the single bloodiest day of the entire Civil War). That same month, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, an executive order which abolished slavery in the Confederacy (but not in slave states such as Kentucky, Delaware, and Maryland, which had remained in the Union).
By late 1862 and early 1863 it was clear that the conflict was going to be a long and bloody one. In December 1862 the Federalist forces of the North lost another big battle, this time at Fredericksburg, Virginia. In early May 1863, Lee guided the rebel army to yet another important victory in Virginia, at Chancellorsville, but he lost his best general, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, to friendly fire in the process. Further west, however, Union troops under the command of General Ulysses S. Grant sliced through the Deep South and assumed control of the Mississippi River in the Vicksburg Campaign. Grant’s triumph came in the same month–July 1863–that the Confederate Army suffered a costly and demoralizing loss at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The Battle of Gettysburg decimated Lee’s forces, and the defeat marked a significant turn in the fortunes of the Confederacy.
In March 1864 Lincoln appointed Grant to head all Union troops. The president had been bitterly disappointed with the unassertive performances of Grant’s predecessors, but Grant proved an implacable and effective leader. Relying on superior numbers, Grant and his generals systematically pushed their Confederate foes southward, and Lee and Grant engaged their armies at several memorable junctions. But while the Union army finally had the upper hand, Lincoln’s job was in jeopardy; Northern voters were weary of the bloodshed, and the Democrats had nominated George B. McClellan, the hero of Antietam, who vowed to end the war.
In September 1864, however, the North learned that Union troops under the command of General Willia
Bibliography:

Euthanasia

1. Definitions of Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide
a. The terms “physician-assisted suicide” and “euthanasia” are often used interchangeably. However, the distinctions are significant.


b. “Physician-assisted suicide” involves a medical doctor who intentionally provides a patient with the means to kill him or herself, usually by an overdose of prescription medication.


c. “Assisted suicide” involves a layperson providing the patient with the deadly means for suicide.
d. “Euthanasia” involves the intentional and direct killing of a patient by a physician, most commonly by lethal injection, or by another party. Euthanasia can be voluntary (at the patient’s request), non-voluntary (without the knowledge or consent of the patient), or involuntary (against the patients wishes).


e. It is important to note that a person can reject medical treatment at the end of life without committing euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide.


2. Physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia are legal and widely practiced in the Netherlands where:
a. About 9% of all deaths were a result of physician-assisted suicide or euthanasia in 1990. (1, 2)
b. Dutch doctors practice active euthanasia by lethal injections (96.6% of all deaths actively caused by physicians in 1990). Physician-assisted suicide is very infrequent (no more than 3.4% of all cases in Holland of active termination of life in 1990). (3)
c. For patients who die of a lethal overdose of painkillers, the decision to administer the lethal dose of drugs was not discussed with 61% of those receiving it, even though 27% were fully competent. (4)
d. The Board of the Royal Dutch Medical Association endorsed euthanasia on newborns and infants with extreme disabilities. (5)
e. Well over 10,000 citizens now carry “Do Not Euthanize Me” cards in case they are admitted to a hospital unexpectedly. (6)
f. Cases exist where doctors administer assisted suicide for people determined to be “chronically” depressed. (7,8)
3. Oregon is the only state that has legalized physician-assisted suicide where:
a. A recent Health Division report of assisted suicides reveals that not one patient had documented uncontrollable pain. All of the patients who requested assisted suicide cited psychological and social concerns as their primary reasons. (9)
b. “Although numerous studies in the Netherlands and elsewhere report an assisted-suicide failure rate up to 25%, Oregon has yet to report even one complication in over four years. This failure to report complications has led even euthanasia advocates themselves to call the credibility of Oregon reporting on assisted suicide into question.” (10)
4. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 1997 in Washington v. Glucksberg that there is no federal constitutional substantive right to assisted suicide. (11) In a 1997 companion case, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Vacco v. Quill that there is no federal constitutional equal protection right to assisted suicide. (12)
5. Virtually every established medical and nursing organization in the United States declares physician-assisted suicide is unethical.


6. There are no laws, medical associations, church denominations, or right-to-life groups who insist that unnecessary, heroic, or truly futile treatments be provided to prolong life and all recognize the right of competent patients to refuse medical treatment. (13)
7. 95% of cancer pain is controllable and the remaining 5% can be reduced to a tolerable level. (14)
8. The states of California, Washington, Michigan and Maine rejected ballot referenda questions to legalize physician-assisted suicide in their respective states. The Supreme Court of Alaska in Alaska v. Sampson declared there is no state constitutional right to physician-assisted suicide, (15) as did the Florida State Supreme Court in McIver v. Kirscher. (16) The Hawaii State Senate voted down a bill to legalize physician-assisted suicide.


References
1. J. Remmelink et al., “Medical Decisions About the End of Life”: Report of the Committee to Study the Medical Practice Concerning Euthanasia, SDU Publishing House, The Hague, 1991.


2. Van der Maas, P.J., van Delden, J.J.M., Pijnenborg, L., “Euthanasia and other medical decisions concerning the end of life.” Elsevier, Amsterdam-London-New York-Tokyo 1992, 73 tabl. 7.2, 75 tabl. 7.7, 138 tabl. 13.8, 178-9, 182-3.


3. Remmelink Report, vol. II, p. 61, Table 7.7.


4. Ibid.


5. Royal Dutch Society of Medicine: “Answers to questions asked by State Committee on Euthanasia,” Medisch Contact 1984, 39, 999.


6. The Levenswensverklaringen (Declarations of the Will to Live) have been printed and distributed by two associations in Holland since 1985.


7. “The Supreme Court abolishes the discrimination between psychological and bodily suffering: The ruling expands assistance in suicide,” Brabants Dagblad, June 22, 1994.


8. “The Brongersma case: Ruling of the Court of Justice in Amsterdam,” Pro Vita Humana 2001, 8, 165-70.


9. Katrina Hedberg, “Oregon’s Death with Dignity Act: Annual Report 2001.” (Available at http://www.ohd/hr.state.or.us/chs/pas/ar-index.htm)
10. Sherwin B. Nuland, “Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia in Practice,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 342, February 24, 2000.


11. 521 U.S. 702 (1997).


12. 521 U.S. 793 (1997).


13. Hospital/Nursing Home Patient Bill of Rights.


14. Cancer Pain Relief, World Health Organization, 1986.


15. 31 P.3d 88 (Alaska 2001).


16. 697 So.2d 97 (Fla. 1997).

Joan of Arc

Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc by Nancy Wilson Ross in nineteen-hundred and fifty-three and published by Random House. Nancy Wilson Ross was born in Olympia Washington; she wrote many books on the early fifteenth century including Joan of Arc.

Nancy Wilson Ross wrote of that Joan of Arc was a simple girl taken advantage of by a wimp of a prince/king who left her to be used and abandoned at the first sign of trouble; by those that she had helped the most. That Joan was divinely guided by her voices and manipulated by many to fit their will.

Mrs. Ross starts off by showing the extreme challenge of getting to see the Prince Dauphin. In the beginning she was laughed at and told to go back to her family farm, as a mere girl they had no need of her. But Joan did not give up and she waited till the war had gone on for awhile and was not going well and then she tried again. Joan was finally allowed to go to see her Prince and tell him of her voices, but first she had to endure a verification of the origin of her voices and of her that took quite a while longer. Joan in the mean time grew anxious for the Prince and for France as her voices were urging her to hurry and help Prince Dauphin get crowned King of France and save her country from the English.

After Joan is proven fit, she is finally allowed to meet her Prince and finds that he is a weak-willed individual that is not inclined to make any decisions, least of all to put forth the effort to go to Reims and be crowned the King of France. Joan does convince him into letting her go out into the battle fields and help lead the soldiers to a victory. Joan was fulfilling a prophecy that said that “having been through a woman (the wicked plots of Dauphin’s Mother), would be restored by a girl from Lorraine.”
In battle Joan was smart and brave and gave the men hope that they could turn the war around. Joan dictated letters to the English generals that she did not want to hurt them and that they should go home, but they ignored her and she fought them till they turned and ran. Joan helped turn the tide to Frances advantage and then returned to Prince Dauphin to try to convince him to go to Reims and be crowned.
After Joan made sure that the passage to Reims was safe, she returned to court to wait out and answer from Prince Dauphin. While waiting Joan the Maid is treated as a Lady of the Court, but she is anxious to see France united by having a crowned King to lead them. Mrs. Ross uses the times of wait to show how the Prince did not take serious the affairs of France or of the war, but only of his own comfort.

Joan the maid finally convinces the Prince that he must make the decision that is the only hope for France and be crowned the King. Joan the maid travels with the Princes entourage to Reims with no mishap and finally gets to see her family that she has been away from for so long. But Joan’s voices are urging her to get her mission completed and to crown the King. Joan accomplishes the crowning of the King in less then twenty-four hours of arriving in Reims.

After the crowning of the King, Mrs. Ross reminds us how much Joan is set in the wings by the King until he has no choice but to let her do as her voices bid her. The new King would rather show Joan the Maid off than to listen to what she is trying to tell him about the war. Joan the Maid is kept at court for to long, she is allowed to rejoin the men fighting for the unity of France.
Joan is not as lucky this time and is captured by the Burgundian soldiers, and even though she had fought a brave fight she was now a captive of war. Mrs. Ross illustrates how of all the people that Joan the Maid has befriended and helped especially the King, no one came to Joan’s rescue or even tried to ransom her back; it was as though she was of no more use they just let her to her own fate.
Joan was put to trial as a witch and first she confessed that she was what ever they wanted her to be so that she could be at peace, but she could not live with a lie. In the end the trial branded her a witch for the same voices that had crowned a King of France and turned the war around and she was tied to a stake and set on fire while everyone watched and cheered.
Mrs. Ross completes her wonderful book, by completing her point that this was a gift that was used, abused, and finally honored in the end. In the end twenty-five years after Joan of Arc’s horrible death her family petitioned the Pope as the head of the Church and he re-tried Joan’s case. They finally allowed the voices of the people that Joan had known and helped to be heard, all but the King who never spoke out on her behalf. Joan was declared by the Pope to be innocent of all charges and was named Saint Joan of Arc for her life that she gave to help unite her war-torn country.

Mrs. Ross has written many books and is well known for the detail and history in her books. I would recommend that everyone read her books.

Italy

Italy
Italy is a country located in southern Europe. Italy occupies a boot-
shaped peninsula that extends into the Mediterranean sea from southern Europe.

The country also includes two large islands, Sicily and Sardinia.


The History
Italy has had a long and colorful history. For much of its history,
Italy has been divided into many small and often warring city states. This
occurred after the break up of the Roman Empire when much of Europe became
feudal. In 476, Odoacer defeated the last emperor of ancient Rome, Romulus
Augustulus. Odoacer ruled for 13 years after gaining control. He was then
attacked and defeated by Theodoric, the king of a Germanic tribe named the
Ostrogoths. Both kings, Theodoric and Odoacer ruled jointly until Theodoric
murdered Odoacer. Theodoric continued to rule Italy with a government comprised
mostly of Italians and an army composed of Ostrogoths. During his rule, he
brought peace to the country but after his death in 526, the kingdom began to
grow weak. In 553, Justinian, the Byzantine emperor who ruled the eastern part
of the Roman Empire, defeated the Ostrogoths and expelled them. For a time, the
Old Roman Empire was united again. Byzantine rule in Italy collapsed as
increased attacks fr om Germanic tribes weakened the empire. Byzantine rule
collapsed in 572 when the Lombards invaded.

In the 400’s and 500’s the popes increased their influence in both
religious and political matters in Italy and elsewhere. The popes were usually
the ones who made attempts to protect Italy from foreign invasion or to soften
foreign rule. The popes for almost 200 years had opposed attempts by the
Lombards, who controlled most of Italy, to take over Rome. The popes defeated
the Lombards with the aid of two Frankish kings, Charlemagne and Pepin the Short.

The papal states were created out of land won for the popes by Pepin.

From the 10th century on, Italian cities began to grow rapidly and
became increasingly independent of one another. They flourished because of
their access to the Mediterranean trade routes and almost had a complete
monopoly on all spice and silks coming into Europe. They became centers of
political life, foreign trade and banking. At this time, the church grew in
power also. The Italian popes became increasingly more involved in the European
political scene. Many of these city states became extremely wealthy and
powerful and resisted the attempts of noblemen and emperors to control them.

During the 1300’s, one of the greatest eras in human history occurred,
The Renaissance. The Renaissance occurred primarily in Italy in the various
city states. Many great artists and philosophers lived during this period and
enhanced Italy’s prestige.

The kingdom of Italy was formed in 1861. Five years later, in 1866,
Venetia became a part of that kingdom. Rome became its capital in 1871.

Benito Mussolini became premier in 1922. In 1940, Italy entered World
War II on the side of the Germans. Italy surrendered in 1943 and established a
new republic in 1946.


Culture and Customs
The population of Italy is approximately 58 million people, most of whom
live in the urban cities. The four largest cities in Italy, in order of
population are Rome, Milan, Naples and Turin. The most densely populated areas
of the country are the industrialized regions of Lombardy and Liguria in the
northwest region of Campania in the south. The areas with the lowest population
density are the mountains of both the north and south.

More than two thirds of Italy’s population reside in cities. Most live
in large, concrete apartment buildings. A few of the more wealthy people live
in single-family homes. The oldest sections of an Italian city are made up o
low buildings that have apartments around a central courtyard. Newer parts of
the city often have larger apartment buildings. Poor neighborhoods are usually
found on the outskirts of the city.

Most unmarried children live with their parents. Parents often help an
adult son or daughter purchase an apartment near their own. Many young women
work outside the home, and grandparents often help care for the children of
working mothers. Many urban areas provide public child-care centers.

City growth and the increased use of the automobile have led to some
serious problems with urban pollution in Italy. In large cities, the air
pollution poses a health hazard and has damaged priceless architecture. Many
cities have banished private cars from the city centers.

Most rural communities in the past consisted of a compact settlement
surrounded by a large area of agricultural land. The farmers usually lived in
town and traveled to work in the fields each day. This pattern of living was
especially common in southern Italy, in northern Italy the farmers usually lived
on their land.

Italians take great pride in the quality of their cooking. They
traditionally eat their main meals at midday. Large meals usually consist of a
past course, followed by a main course of meat or fish. Italian foods vary
greatly by region. In the north, flat, ribbon-shaped pastas served with cream
sauces are most popular. In the south, macaroni served with tomato-based sauces
is the favorite type of pasta.

Italians enjoy a wide variety of sports. Soccer is the most popular
sport in Italy. Every major city has a professional soccer team. But soccer is
not just a spectator sport- on weekends Italy’s parks are filled with children
and adults playing the game. Basketball is also very popular, and some cities
have more than one professional basketball team. Other popular sports include
fishing, hunting, cycling, roller skating, and baseball.


Major Religions
About 95 percent of the population in Italy is Roman Catholic. Most
religious ceremonies such as baptisms, weddings and funeral services are held in
church. Only about 30 percent of all Italians attend church regularly. Many
others occasionally attend church. An agreement called the Lateran Pact governs
the relationship between Italy and the Roman Catholic Church. For example, the
pact exempts priests and other members of religious orders from military service
and gives tax exemptions to Catholic organizations.

The Roman Catholic Church has had a strong influence on laws in the past,
but that influence has weakened. For example, until 1970, the church was able
to block attempts to legalize divorce in Italy.

Vatican City, the spiritual and governmental center of the Roman
Catholic Church, lies entirely within the city of Rome. But Vatican City is
independent from Italy and has its own diplomatic corps.

There are several small religious groups in Italy. The other groups
include Protestants, Muslims and Jews.


Political Systems
Italy set up its present form of government in 1946. That year, the
people voted to change their nation from a monarchy ruled by a king to a
republic headed by a president. King Humbert II immediately left the throne.

The president of Italy is elected to a seven-year term by both houses of
Parliament. The president must be at least 50 years old. He or she appoints
the premier, who forms a government. The president has the power to dissolve
parliament and call new elections. The president is the commander of the
Italian armed forces, and can declare war.

The premier determines national policy and is the most important person
in the Italian government. The premier is selected by the president from the
members of Parliament and must be approved by Parliament. The premier has no
fixed term of office, and can be voted out by office by Parliament at any time.

Members of the Cabinet are chosen by the premier and are usually chosen from
among the Parliament.

The Parliament consists of a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate. Both of
these houses have equal power in passing laws. The Senate has 315 elected
members and the Chamber of Deputies has 630 members. All former presidents
become Senators for life.

In elections for the Chamber of Deputies, the country is divided into 32
constituencies. The number of Deputies to be elected from each constituency is
determined by its population. Each political party presents a list of
candidates for the position of deputy from the district. The deputies selected
from a party are chosen in the order of number of preference votes each receives.

Senators are chosen in much the same way, but are elected from twenty regions
instead.

Italy has a complicated system of election to parliament based on
proportional representation. In the Parliament, the percentage of seats held by
each political party is about the same as the percentage of the total votes
received by the party’s candidates.

Since 1948, Italy has experienced frequent Cabinet changes. Most
Cabinets have lasted less than a year, but many members of one Cabinet have
remain in the new one. If some of the parties in the Cabinet are disagreeing
with the Cabinets policies, they may withdraw support and require the formation
of a brand new Cabinet.

The fascist government that once ruled Italy is on the rise again. The
fascist party grows in membership each year. Italy has also been reluctant to
talk about the joining of the European nations into one large economic super
power.


Economic Systems
Since World War II, Italy has shifted from a predominantly agricultural
economy to one based on modern industries. As recently as the 1950’s, more
than a third of all Italians were employed in agriculture. From 1953 to 1968,
industrial production almost tripled. By the late 1980’s, only about 10
percent of employed Italians worked in agriculture. The transformation has been
most complete in northern Italy, which is now one of the most advanced
industrial areas of Western Europe. Southern Italy remains poorer and less
industrialized, despite long-term efforts of the Italian government to improve
the region’s industry and agriculture.

In 1957, Italy became a member in the European Economic Community. This
union of Western European nations, also called the European Common Market, has
abolished tariffs on trade among its members. This membership has helped
strengthen the economy of Italy.

Service industries account for about two-thirds of Italy’s gross
domestic product. Trade ranks as Italy’s most important type of service industry.

It accounts for a larger percentage of the country’s gross domestic product and
employs a greater share of workers than any other service industry.

Manufacturing accounts for almost a fourth of Italy’s gross domestic product.


Languages
The language of Italy is Italian. Like French and Spanish, Italian is a
romance language – one of several languages that evolved from Latin. There are
only a few communities in Italy in which Italian is not spoken as the first
language. German is the first language of many of the Terntino-Alto Adige
region. French is spoken as a first language in portions of the northwestern
part of Italy. Solvene, a Slavic language, and Ladin, a language similar to the
Romanasch of the Swiss, are spoken in northern sections of Italy.


The Land, Environment and Growth Potential
Italy has eight different regions. The first one is the Alpine Slope.

The Alpine Slope runs across the northernmost part of Italy. Its landscape
includes huge mountains and deep valleys. Forests are found in the lower areas,
in the higher areas, there are grasslands and conifer forests. The melting snow
feeds many rivers. Many hydroelectric plants have been built along these rivers
and help to power the factories of the north.

The second region of Italy is the Po Valley. This area is also referred
to as the North Italian Plain. It is a broad plain that stretches between the
Alps in the north and the Apennine mountains in the south. This valley floods
periodically, but a intricate system of dikes helps control the flooding.

The third region is the Adriatic Plain. It is a small region north of
the Adriatic Sea. Its eastern edge borders Yugoslavia. This area is not very
well suited for farming.

The fourth region is the Apennines. This region stretches almost the
entire length of Italy. The mountains in this region have steep inclines of
soft rock and are constantly eroding as a result of heavy rain. The northern
Apennines have some of the largest forests in the country and much pasture land.

The central part of the range has productive farmland and grazing. The southern
Apennines include the poorest part of Italy. This area has plateaus and high
mountains, but few natural resources.

The fifth and sixth regions are the Apulia and southeastern Plains.

These form the “heel” of the boot-shaped peninsula. This region is composed of
plateaus that end as cliffs at the Mediterranean Sea.

The seventh region is the Western Uplands and Plains. This area
stretches along the Tyrrhenian Sea from La Spezia, a port city just south of
Genoa, southward past Naples to Salerno. It is a rich agricultural region,
second only to the Po Valley in agricultural output.

Sicily is the eight region. Sicily is the largest island in the
Mediterranean Sea. It is separated from mainland Italy by the Start of Messina.

The island has mountains and plains. Mount Etna, one of the largest active
volcanoes in the world, dominates the landscape of northeastern Silicy. Sever
erosion caused in part by the clearing of forests, has hampered agriculture and
made travel in many inland areas difficult during the wet season.

The climate of Italy is temperate. The spring, summer and fall are
generally sunny, but winter is rainy and cloudy. In early spring, hot dry air
from the Sahara expands and covers Italy. The summer climate of much of Italy
is dry, with occasional rainstorms.


Technology
Italy’s technological level is equal to that of the U.S in certain areas.

The northern part of Italy uses some of the most advanced manufacturing methods
in its factories. One quarter of the countries power is supplied through state
of the art hydroelectric dams. More than 450 privately owned television
stations and over 1000 private radio stations are operating in Italy.

Italy has an excellent system of roads. Large, modern superhighways run
the length of the Italian peninsula. Tunnels though the Alps link the highway
system to those of neighboring countries. Italy has an average of about 1 car
for ever 3 people.

When compared to the United States, Italy is only slightly behind. The
United States has more advanced computers and telecommunications system. In
medical technology, Italy is equal to the U.S but the technology is not as
widely available as it is in the United States. Natural Resources
Italy is limited in the number of natural resources and must rely on
imports. Much of the mineral deposits in Italy are found on the islands of
Sicily and Sardinia and in the regions of Lombardy, Tuscany and in the north-
-central and northwestern parts of the peninsula. The most important natural
resource of Italy is natural gas, which is found primarily in the Po Valley.

Italy also produces abundant amounts of marble and granite. Other minerals
important to Italy are feldspar, pumice and sulfur.

For it its energy supply, Italy relies upon other countries. Petroleum
imported from Libya provides more than half of the countries energy. Italy
imports much of its oil from Iran and Libya.

Italy produces very small amounts of petroleum. Most of Italy’s
petroleum is found in Sicily.


I found Italy to be an interesting country. Many of the greatest and
most important eras in mankind occurred in Italy. The Renaissance, The Roman
Empire and some of World War II all happened in Italy. I believe the historical
and cultural significance of Italy is largely overlooked.

Another reason I chose Italy is that it is a country we rarely study in
school. When we study European history, we mainly cover France or Germany, etc.

We rarely get into countries that are just as important as Italy. When we do
study them, we blend them all together and just get a brief overview of the
countries history and culture.

One of the things that fascinated me about this country was its place in
current world economics. Italy has a high GDP and is heavily involved in trade
on the Mediterannean. Italy has the largest shipping fleet in the world. When
the news mentions the strongest economic nations, you never hear about Italy.

Yet I found that Italy is a significant player in world economics.

The government and political system of Italy also fascinated me. The
political system there seems more complex than the one in the United States.

The House of Deputies has over 600 members and the Senate over 300. I also
found It interesting that ex-presidents are given permanent positions in their
government as Senators.

One of the things that bothered me in researching this paper was that it
was difficult to summarize the history of the country. Many of the books I had
were long and covered the history in so much detail that it was hard to skim
through and take out the important events and make them fit into this paper.

When researching this paper at the library, many of the books were either travel
guides or books about the art of Italy. There were quite a few about the
culture and past but it took awhile to find them among all the travel guides.

If I had a chance to visit this nation I definitely would. Italy seems
like a fun place to visit because of all the old historic sites. It would be
interesting to visit all the old Roman and middle age ruins that are located in
Italy.

Was Prince Hamlet Wacko

Essay written by emailprotected
In Shakespeare’s “Hamlet”, the main character offers a puzzling and ambiguous persona. Throughout the play, Hamlet often contradicts himself. He seems to balance the virtues of “playing a role”, with being true to himself. Further proof of these conflicting personas are demonstrated by his actions and inactions. The ambiguity noted here, lies in two conflicting mannerisms displayed by the young Hamlet: One that is perfectly calm and rational; and another which displays madness. These conflicting behaviors are related within Hamlet’s internal struggle-to kill Claudius for revenge of his fathers’ murder; or act responsibly, and await further proof of Claudius’ guilt. Throughout the play, Hamlet teeters on the brink of insanity induced by his actions, or inactions.

Hamlet’s sanity is clarified, in the first act, by statements and feelings expressed within his dialogue. When asked about his depressed appearance and demeanor by Gertrude, Hamlet replies, “Seems, madam? Nay, it is. I know not “seems” (1037, line 76). This relates the idea that Hamlet is ‘what he appears to be’. Later, he clearly makes a statement about his mental health when he commits himself to avenge his father’s murder. This quote allows the reader to follow Hamlet’s train of thought in regards to his role as student, mourning son, and Prince to the throne:
“I’ll wipe away all trivial fond records, All saws of books, all forms, all pressures past That youth and observation copied there, And thy commandment all alone shall live Within the book and volume of my brain” (1054, line 100). Hamlet is stating his utmost commitment to nothing short of revenge of his fathers’ death. At this juncture in the play, there is little doubt about his state of mind, or intentions. However, the next act belies Hamlet’s sanity and reason.

In act two, Hamlet appears again, although it now becomes apparent he has lost the conviction he demonstrated earlier-to complete his destiny as prescribed by the ghost of his father. During this act, Hamlet spends most of his time reading and talking with Polonius, Guildenstern, Rosencrantz, and the players. Not until the very end of this second act, does Hamlet refer to his filial duty to avenge his father. Instead of carrying out the destiny described by his fathers spirit-role of the vengeful son-Hamlet exhibits insane behaviors. This is illustrated by his statements to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, “I know not-lost my mirth, forgone all custom of exercises…” (1071, line 282). Hamlet then admits he is merely feigning insanity with, “I am but mad north-north-west. When the wind is southerly I know a hawk from a handsaw” (1073, line 350). Admitting he is only acting “mad”, implies he is secure with his plot. Hamlet also seems to portray a willingness to accept this plight with, “…for there is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so…” (1070, line 241). In this instance, Hamlet is stating that behavior shapes reality.
In act two, Hamlet is again prompted towards vengeance-this time by a poignant speech delivered by one of the players. Hamlet responds to this dialogue with, “What’s Hecuba to him, or he to Hecuba, That he should weep for her? What would he do Had he motive and cue for passion That I have?” (1078, line 515). In this complement to this player’s acting ability, Hamlet is saying that if he were such an actor he would have killed Claudius by now. Therein, lies the struggle between acting, and actual vengeance, that persists throughout the play until the very end. At this moment, Hamlet avows to avenge his father, “I should ha’ fatted all the region kites With this slave’s offal. Bloody, bawdy villain! O, vengeance! What an ass am I! This is most brave, That I, the son of a dear father murdered, Prompted to my revenge by heaven and hell…” (1079, line 535).

Again, Hamlet is questioning not only his sanity, but his role in life. He also questions the purpose of his role-madness or vengeful son? He had already pledged revenge, but again acquiesces, “Must like a whore unpack my heart with words And fall a-cursing, like a very drab, A scullion!” (1079, line 542). Hence, Hamlet (always wanted to say that!), is now berating role playing, although he now realizes he may provide proof of Claudius’ guilt through role playing by the players. Hamlet then devises a plan to use the players to condemn Claudius via a play, “The play’s the thing wherein I’ll catch the conscience of the King” (1080, line 561).
Before the play is performed, Hamlet has an intercourse with Ophelia, and offers some prophetic statements, “To be, or not to be…”. Clearly, in this most famous Shakespeare soliloquy, Hamlet displays thoughts of self that questions the worth of living. Moreover, Hamlet recognizes the importance of his affections towards Ophelia, and in regards to Ophelia’s beauty, Hamlet states “That if you be honest and fair, your honesty should admit no discourse to your beauty” (1083, line 108). Clearly, Hamlet is saying that indeed, Ophelia can be honest and fair, however; it is virtually impossible to link these two traits, since ‘fairness’ is an outward trait, while ‘honesty’ is an inward trait. He further states “A, truly, for the power of beauty will sooner transform honesty from what it is to a bawd that the force of honesty can translate beauty into his likeness” (1083, line 112).

Thus, Hamlet is stating that the inner and outer self cannot be linked, yet acting or role playing, transforms ones inner self to match the exterior show. In this sense, Hamlet would not have any problems taking action, if only he was able to act the part. Hamlet then contradicts himself again when he states “God hath given you one face, and you go make yourselves another” (1084, line 140). He states that appearance is paramount, but chastises women for changing it. These passages further Hamlet’s ambiguous nature-he seems to support role playing at one moment, then denounce it the next. It also becomes clear that when Hamlet is in support of role playing, he seems primed for vengeance. While supporting role playing, he says “It hath made me mad. I say we will have no more marriages. Those that are married already-all but one-shall live” (1084, line 144). The ‘one’ Hamlet refers to is undoubtedly Claudius-which supports the link of vengeance and role playing. The next scene alludes to similar conflicts, but much more subtly.

In this scene, while Hamlet is advising the player on how his lines should be read, he says “Suit the action to the word, the word to the action” (1086, line 15). If only Hamlet would follow his own advice, would his conflict be subdued. This illustrates the inconsistency within Hamlet, since he maintains separation between word and actions, while advocating that others should not. Hamlet then appraises Horatio for his objectivity and consistency. He also compliments Horatio for being true to himself, not being a role player with, “Give me that man That is not passion’s slave, and I will wear him In my heart’s core, ay, in my heart of heart, As I do thee” (1088, line 63). At this point, Hamlet has decided he wants Horatio to watch Claudius at the play. Hamlet remains uncertain as to his uncle’s guilt; moreover, he needs proof. He wants the proof from someone he admires and trusts. Hamlet says to Horatio “Observe mine uncle. If his occulted guilt Do not itself unkernnel on one speech, It is a damned ghost we have seen” (1088, line 72).

The proof that Hamlet requires does not defer from the role that he is supposed to play. It becomes intriguing that Hamlet’s uncle is to be judged upon how he acts during the play. If Claudius is a consummate actor and does not reveal his guilt, his life will be spared. Yet, Claudius is a poor actor, and when he rises during the play Hamlet reacts with “What, frighted with false fire?” (1094, line 245). It is as if Hamlet is saying ‘it’s only a play, it is not real’. Hamlet does mention something to this effect with his previous lines “Your majesty, and we that have free souls, it touches us not” (1093, line 221). This proof drives Hamlet to more words, this time referring to killing, “Now I could drink hot blood” (1097, line 356). Again, Hamlet associates these actions with that of a role, in this instance, the role of Nero, “The soul of Nero enter this firm bosom” (1098, line 360). Again later, Hamlet talks himself out of character and does not kill Claudius. He ‘puts it off’ until later days and states “When he is drunk asleep, or in his rage, Or in th’ incestuous pleasure of his bed, At game a-swearing, or about some act That has no relish of salvation in ‘t-Then trip him, that his heels may kick at heaven, And that his soul may be damned and black” (1101, line 88). Hamlet is awaiting Claudius to fit the part of the villain. His action is virtually paralyzed whenever something or someone does not fit the part. Hamlet needs his revenge to be dramatic, so that he can finally get into his role and play it out.

After Hamlet backs out of killing Claudius, he says to his mother “O shame, where is thy blush?” (1104, line 85). Here, he is voicing his displeasure for his mother not only marrying his uncle, but for not being true to herself. Again, Hamlet is contradicting himself. He has been-throughout the first two-thirds of this play-ambiguous and untrue to himself. At this juncture, he is still uncertain as to how to proceed. Hamlet is caught in his inner turmoil of acting out his role, and objectivity. Finally, Hamlet’s thoughts and actions are placed in order, and he makes the decision to uphold the destiny his father had proclaimed. Hamlet makes this momentous decision while watching the soldiers going off to battle, “The imminent death of twenty thousand men That for fantasy and a trick of fame, Go to their graves like beds, fight for a plot Whereon the numbers cannot try the cause, Which is not tomb enough and continent To hide the slain? O, from this time forth My thoughts be bloody or be nothing worth!” (1116, line 62).

Hamlet reasons that these soldiers fight and die simply because that is there fate-regardless if the plot of land is insignificant. He realizes what his role is. Hence, he does not falter in his conviction upon his return from England, and fully embraces his role. Upon his confrontation with Laertes, he says “This is I, Hamlet the Dane” (1138, line 236)–meaning the true King of Denmark. This action by Hamlet is appropriate for someone as wronged as he was. In his reaction to Ophelia’s death, Hamlet again displays behavior that reinforces his role. She was his true love interest, and perhaps loved her more than her brother. This is illustrated by Hamlet’s statement “I loved Ophelia. Forty thousand brothers Could not with all their quantity of love Make up my sum” (1139, line 251). Hamlet concedes that he should have loved her, but did not. Had Hamlet truly loved Ophelia, he would not have treated her so harshly. Hamlet is now committed to role playing, and portraying love for her at this time, fits the role.

In the remaining scenes of this play, Hamlet is steadfast in his role. He has but moments to relate to Horatio his tale of escape, before he is challenged by Laertes. Hamlet is left without options, in regards to Laertes’ challenge-he must defend his honor. Hamlet enters this match, but more importantly, accepts the role of his destiny-to kill Claudius, and avenge the death of his father.

Survival in this play is based on one’s ability to role play. Polonius was unable to adhere to his role of adviser, and attempted to convince Claudius that Hamlet was enamored with his daughter. This led Polonius to spy on Hamlet, and since he was not successful in that venture, it cost him his life. Ophelia obviously was unable to bear the burden of her father’s death, and that her true love was the one who had killed him. This resulted in her obvious delve into insanity, which resulted in her death. Claudius was unable to successfully conceal his guilt, thus Hamlet had the proof he needed to confront him. Yet, the irony of Shakespeare’s tragedy lies within the main character. If Hamlet had acted as the ghost of his father had initially ordained, no one except Claudius would have perished. Therefore, Hamlet merely verged on the brink of madness-spurned by his quest for the truth, that lies within us all.


Bibliography:

Scarlet Letter And Sin

Hester Prynne, through the eyes of the Puritans, is an extreme sinner; she has
gone against the Puritan ways, committing adultery. For this irrevocably harsh
sin, she must wear a symbol of shame for the rest of her life. “On the
breast of her gown, in a fine red cloth surrounded by an elaborate embroidery
and fantastic flourishes of gold thread, appeared the letter ‘A.'” Hester’s
scarlet “A” serves as a public symbol of her private sin. Because
Hester is able to declare her guilt openly, she is freed from excessive remorse,
and her sin serves to enrich and dignify rather than to destroy her. The letter
makes her stronger and more an individual. As foreshadow as Hawthorne speaks of
the scarlet letter, “..It had the effect of a spell, taking her out of the
ordinary relations with humanity and enclosing her in a sphere by herself,”
Hester indeed does isolate herself, and stays “…. out of the sphere of
social activity..” and moves out to an isolated cottage. Hester decides
that “Here….had been the scene of her guilt, and here should be the scene
of her earthly punishment, the torture of her daily shame would at length purge
her soul and work out another purity than that which she had lost; more
saintlike, because of the result of matyrdom. Hester Prynne, therefore did not
flee.” This is where she sinned, this shall be where she suffers and gives
penance. As expected, Hester is at first shunned and humiliated by the
townspeople, who ignore their own faults and project them onto Hester, and then
later their children project them onto Pearl, who does not have the “divine
maternity” of Hester, who can do no wrong. Hester behaves with decorum and
grace, helping others who are hungry, sick, or in need. Slowly the disdain of
the townspeople turns to admiration, “…Many people refused to interpet
the scarlet “A” by it’s orginial signification. They said it meant
“Able”…” and Hester becomes a respected person in a Puritan
society by overcoming one of the harshest punishments, the scarlet letter. All
in all, in the conclusion of the book, Hawthorne demondstrats to us that Hester
Prynne and Arthur Dimmsdale, whom both commited the same sin, but dealt and
lived with it in completly different ways, were ultimately both forgiven. We
learn that their graves were next to one another, but “..with a space
inbetween, as if the dust of the two sleepers had no right to mingle.” but,
in the end “Yet one tombstone served for both.” Finally, we are left
with: “On a Field, Sable, The Letter A Gules.” Arthur Dimmesdale is
his own worst enemy. He hates himself and must physically inflict pain upon
himself. “He thus typified the constant introspection wherewith he
tortured, but could not purify, himself” to never forget what he has done.


He lacks the courage to risk his important position in society by admitting his
sin publicly, but is unable to achieve any inner calm while living with his
hypocrisy. To Dimmesdale, it is bad that Hester is shown publicly as a sinner,
but people forget that. What is far worse than public shame is Dimmesdale’s own
cruel inner shame. Publicly he becomes more and more passionate and effective in
his sermons and moral counsil to his congregation. Privately he is torn with
self-hatred, and his body wastes away because of the remorse and knowing what
only he and Hester know gnaws at his soul. He has not confessed, therefore he
knows he can’t begin his true penance, thus never being forgiven. He finally has
the courage to do so at the hour of his death.

Mass Extinctions On The Earth

Intro:
Sixty-five million years ago, some phenomenon triggered mass extinctions on the lands and in the oceans so profound that they define the geological boundary between the older Mesozoic Era, often called the “Age of Reptiles,” and the modern Cenozoic Era, the “Age of Mammals.”
On a finer scale, the extinctions define the boundary between the Cretaceous (geological symbol, “K”), and Tertiary (“T”) periods. This mass extinction is usually referred to as the K-T extinctions. The dinosaurs became extinct during the K-T mass extinction. To examine how the K-T extinctions fit into a broader perspective, please see the
The cause of the K-T extinctions is one of the great mysteries in science, and many scientists have proposed theories to account for it. Theories span a vast spectrum of causes including: sea level change, supernova explosions, climate change, and on and on.
Beginning in the 1980s, two new theories became the topic of an intense scientific debate. They are the K-T impact extinction theory originated by the Nobelist physicist, Luis Alvarez, and his team, and the K-T Deccan Traps extinction theory, which, for short, is called volcano-greenhouse theory.


Details of the Impact Theory
In the mid-late 1970s, Luis Alvarez and his impact team began searching for the cause of the K-T extinctions.
His evidence of impact was enrichment of the chemical, iridium, in a thin layer of clay a few centimenters thick at the K-T boundary. His original theory held that a giant asteroid struck earth 65 million years ago, blasting so much dust into the atmosphere that it blocked out sunlight, and plunged earth into the blackness and cold of a sudden, short-duration, “impact winter.”
According to Alvarez theory, the global blackout triggered extinctions among the plant kingdom, and then among herbivores that depended upon plants for food, and then among the carnivores that ate the herbivores.
Those smaller animals that could hide and hibernate until the sun came out again must have sruvived and formed the animals that there are today.

There is other evidence for this theory : there is a layer of iridium found on top of the fossils which can be found all over the world. this is important becouse there is a lot of iridium on asteroids while on earth it is only deep down inside the crater.


Details of the Volcano Theory:
Another less popular theory to explain the disappearance of the dinosaurs suggests that a drop in the oxygen levels in the lower atmosphere led to the gradual death of all kinds of species.

Robert Barner and Gary Landis of the U.S. Geological survey determined that the air that the dinosaurs consumed contained 50% more oxygen than the air today. This can be the same for us as trying to breathe to the same air found at the sea level as compared to air at 3500 m.

There was a lot of volcanoe eruptions at the same time (and since they took up soo much air it was hard for the dinosaurs to breathe , so they fianlly died.

The evidence is that the fossils found in the ground contain traces of lager traces of Oxygen.
How can humans stop this?
Since mankind is much smarter than the reptiles it is obvious that we can stop these asteroids from colliding with the earth. The only question is how. Now we have nuclear devices which can be put on these asteroids so that they can explode just in time before it’s course is doomed towards earth.

Censorship in art

Censorship in Art
Censorship has existed in the United States since colonial times. In the early history of American culture censorship’s emphasis was on political statements and actions, banning literature, music and even people from being heard in this country. This leading too more closed-minded views about different cultures and society, which we are still fighting to over come in the present day. Today a better-informed America has switched their views to a more sexual content when deciding what should be publicly released. While all of this seems to violate our first amendment right, group censorship is totally legal. Hidden amongst recent censorship are many Cuban exile groups who have caused a handful of Cuban performances to be canceled or moved from South Florida, reverting us back to a society lacking the cultural activates it needs to grow.

According to the Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, “censorship is an official prohibition or restriction of any type of expression believed threaten political, social, or moral order.” This can be imposed by governmental authority, religious group, or by a powerful private association. Only the first out of the three makes the censorship a violation of our civil rights. The First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States says:
“Congress shall make no law representing an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or of the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and petition the Government for a redress of grievances.”
This law applies only to the “Government,” its laws or it’s agencies and not to religious or community-established groups who conduct the suppressions.
According to modern laws, art is protected by the constitution. But music and musical performances are not censored on the basis of art; they are usually censored for obscenity so “the children” won’t be traumatized! Which in some degree is understandable when trying to get our country to be more “Family orientated.” However, recent violent protests in South Florida and threats of more protests have canceled Irakere, Cubanismo (two major acts from Cuban culture) and moved the venue where the Latin Grammys were to be held from Miami to Los Angeles (Douthat, 15A). These protests were not for inappropriate lyrics or content, but for political views only shared by the groups demonstrating against them. Groups such as, Vigilia Mambisa, the Cuban Patriotic Coalition of Palm Beach, and 18 exile groups (one stemming out of Boca Raton), feel that when these Cuban descendents perform here in the US that the proceeds from their concerts will go back into the Cuban Government, directly helping Fidel Castro (Smith, 4E). Jorge Avellana, a West Palm Beach exile who organized the demonstration against Irakere stated that, “The majority of the money they earn goes to subsidize the dictatorship.”
These shows were not canceled because of any proof that the performers did anything wrong, but for “the safety” of the theater’s employees and patrons (Douthat, 1A). But why should the views of select groups hinder our society from valuable ethnic programs that only help connect the “culture gap” in South Florida. When a mother won’t let her children buy obscene music we admire her involvement. When albums receive a warning sticker, we begin to question our rights. When stores ban albums and videos for inappropriate content we consider it a step backwards. Where do we draw the line when canceling entire performances not for content but for political beliefs of less then and eighth of South Florida’s population? I personally feel like my rights and the rights of the performers were stripped away, taking us back to a time in history where the least amount of diversity helped keep us all “nice and cozy” in a uniform world.
In conclusion, censorship in art can be helpful when controlling the morals of our country. It helps to keep our children free from obscene language and content, for the time being. But not all censorship is based on “moral” ideals some are based on Neanderthal reasoning. The actions that more vocal groups take when their ideals clash with the beliefs of our fellow Americans can seriously hinder our countries personal, cultural and human growth. Everyone has the right to his or her opinion, but that shouldn’t stop a more knowledgeable and culturally enriched society from being born.

Galileo Gallilei

Galileo Galilei was born on February 15, 1564, in Pisa, Italy. Galileo was the first of seven children of Vincenzio Galilei, a trader and Giula Ammannati, an upper-class woman who married below her class. When Galileo was a young boy, his father moved the family moved to Florence. Galileo moved into a nearby monastery with the intentions of becoming a monk, but he left the monastery when he was 15 because his father disapproved of his son becoming a monk.
In November of 1581, Vincenzio Galilei had Galileo enrolled in the University of Pisa School of Medicine because he wanted his son to become a doctor to carry on the family fortune. Vincenzio thought that Galileo should be able to provide for the family when he died, and his sister would need a dowry soon. Galileo had other plans, and in early 1583 he began spending his time with the mathematics professors instead of the medical ones. When his father learned of this, he was furious and traveled 60 miles from Florence to Pisa just to confront his son with the knowledge that he had been neglecting his studies. The grand dukes mathematician intervened and persuaded Vincenzio to allow Galileo to study mathematics on the condition that after one year, all of Galileos support would be cut off and he was on his own.

In the spring of 1585, Galileo skipped his final exams and left the university without a degree. He began finding work as a math tutor. In November of 1589, Galileo found a position as a professor of mathematics at the university of Pisa, the same one he had left without a degree four years before. Galileo was a brilliant teacher, but his radical ways of thinking and open criticism of Aristotles teachings were not acceptable to the other professors at the university. They felt that he was too radical and that his teachings were not suitable. In 1592, his three-year contract was not renewed.
1n 1592, he landed a job teaching mathematics at the University of Padua with the help of some aristocratic friends. After his fathers death, Galileo supported many relatives (including his brother Michelangelo and his family) and the sum of money he earned as a professor was not nearly enough. He began to tutor on the side to make extra money, including Prince Cosimo, the son of Grand Duchess Christine of Tuscany, which helped Galileo with some of his financial problems. This was also the year that Galileo met Marina Gamba, whom he never married but had three children with.

In 1604, Galileo’s belief he had found a new star – and his conclusion that the Earth was moving- began causing him problems. The Roman Catholic Church was uneasy about this declaration that they were wrong. The Church believed that all the planetary bodies were formed at the beginning of Creation, and that new stars were impossible. In 1609, Galileo heard of a spyglass that had been developed in Holland and quickly constructed one himself – the first telescope of twenty times magnification. Galileo presented the telescope to the senate of Venice in August of 1609, who were so impressed they doubled his salary and gave him a permanent job at the University of Padua.
Galileo used his new device to observe the heavens. He found that the popular belief that the moon was completely smooth was incorrect; for he could see the craters and mountains with his new device. In 1610, he observed four bodies around Jupiter which he concluded to be moons. This was incredible proof against the theory of the time that the earth was the center of the solar system because it was believed that all the planets and our moon revolved around the earth. Since these four bodies apparently circled Jupiter, this theory was put in question.
Also through his telescope, Galileo observed that the Milky Way was made up of thousands of stars and that could not be seen with the naked eye. After observing Earth’s moon and then finding the four moons of Jupiter though his new device, he began to declare that the findings of Aristotle and Ptolemy were wrong. Galileo believed that the geocentric model was incorrect. Through lectures and writings, Galileo said that Copernicus was right – that the earth moved around the sun. Galileos enemies took this declaration and used it against him. They went to the Vatican in Rome and said that these ideas were heresy, because they went against the beliefs of the Church. Of course, the Church sided with Galileos accusers and in early 1616, Galileo traveled to Rome to defend his ideas. The Vatican warned him that formal charges were would be pressed unless he abandoned his ideas that Copernicus was correct and that the Roman Catholic Church was wrong. In March of that year, all Copernican theories were banned, but Galileo ignored the warning and continued to talk about his beliefs.
In October of 1632, Galileo was ordered to appear in front of the Inquisition, the court of the Roman Catholic Church. In April of 1633, Galileo went before the court and was ordered to drop all Copernican and heliocentric theories or else he would be torture and executed by burning at the stake for the crime of heresy. On May 10 he admitted in heresy in writing and on June 22 he publicly confessed. He was sentenced to house arrest in his home near Florence for an indefinite length of time. A few months later, Galileos beloved daughter, Sister Maria Celeste, died.
By 1638, Galileo was blind and crippled with arthritis. He continued to work on books through the help of his devoted students and friends. Galileo died at home on January 8, 1642. Galileos former friend Pope Urban VIII refused to allow the grand duke of Tuscany to honor Galileo with a marble monument and a funeral oration.

Later, the Vatican pardoned Galileo and officially admitted that he had been right all along. But it was not until three hundred and fifty years later, in 1992.

ISO 9000

In order to stay competitive, businesses have to be the best at what they
do. Companys must be efficient and presise in all aspects of the job. (Metcalfe
1).ISO 9000 is made up of managements responsibility, the producers
involved in the Quality Management System, the contract review, the design
control, document and data control, purchasing, process control, inspection and
testing, control of non-conforming product, corrective action, handling, storage,
packaging and delivery, internal quality audits, training, servicing and statistical
techniques (Prasanna 1). Quality control and quality assurance is very
important there are certain requirements that take time and money to be met but
in the end there are benefits. Types of specifications are very significant and the
documentation of those is even more. Manufacturers and purchasers have
major responsibility in the process of being successful. The quality of a product
is so important, especially to the customer.A companys quality management
system must become the documented proof of a firms commitment to quality
management. A plan put together with quality procedures and work instructions
is provided to help companies design their own quality management system.
After completing the quality procedures, companies are audited and then
determined if they should be certified for ISO 9000 or not (Parsanna 2).

ISO: International Organization of Standards
Founded in 1947 in Geneva Switzerland, ISO developed international
standards and helped exchange goods and services worldwide. It is made up of
over 90 countries including the US, which is called the American National
Standards Institute. The name ISO came from the Greek word, isos, meaning
equal (Henkoff 2). ISO was created by business men (Henkoff 2). These
business men knew what businesses needed to become more competitive and
how they could get higher customer satisfaction, so ISO was developed. ISO is
not government regulated, but is ran by organizations like the US Registrar
Accreditation Board. Such organizations authorize registrars which issue ISO
certificates (Barrier 2). In Europe some organizations are government regulated.
The American National Standards Institute runs the ISO in the US and
authorizes the US Registrar Accreditation Board (Barrier 2). ISOs job is to set
standards for companies all over the world so that their products come out
efficiently and to the best quality. This helps the customers who receive the
exports know exactly what they are getting and are satisfied with the product.
Setting these standards is done by ISO members at assembly meetings.
Proposals are developed by the ISO Council, which is like the board of directors
in a business. These meetings are held three times a year and the membership
is rotated to allow more representatives in (iso online). Standards are
developed by technical committees. 30,000 experts participate to give
comments, feedback and to vote in meetings which are held15 times a day
electronically.The experts are chosen by an ISO member of that country (iso
The ISO 9000 series was published in 1987 (iso online). It is a
standardization system that was developed by ISO. It is obtained by 130
countries, but its main office is in Geneva, Switzerland where the system is
coordinated and the finished standards are published (iso online). These ISO
standard are rules and guidelines that ensure the product that a manufacturing
business produces is safe, reliable and efficient (iso online). These standards
makes sure that businesses are living up to their promises. An ISO 9000
certificate is given to a business when it maintains the quality management
requirements determined by ISO (Henkoff 1). ISO 9000 helps a business to get
certified by telling it what requirements it should meet and how it will meet them.
It provides a framework for a company. It sets standards worldwide and help
export goods to other countries. However, the company must have good strong
leaders for it to thrive. The success of ISO 9000 on a business largely depends
on the businesss organization. Planning, training, setting and achieving goals
are all key to improvement or success of a business (Henkoff 5). ISO 9000
makes sure a company is doing what it says it is doing and helps them do it.
However, that doesnt mean it is running the company and telling it what to do
(USAToday 1). The business is still an independent business it is just getting
advice on how to manufacture things and earning a certificate that is appealing
to customers. However, that also doesnt mean that ISO 9000 promises the
quality of a companys product will be great; Richard Buerow, director of
corporate quality at Motorola states: With ISO 900 you can still have terrible
processes and products. You can certify a manufacturer that makes life jackets
from concrete, as long as those jackets are made according to the documented
procedures and the company provides the next of kin with instructions on how to
complain about defects. Thats absurd (Henkoff 3). Its steps and procedures
will help a manufacturers product become better produced.
ISO 9000 is divided into three equally ranked quality systems which a
business can chooses by what quality system will cover their business process
ISO 9001 is for a business whose processes range from design and
development, to production, installation and servicing.
ISO 9002 is for a business that does not carry out design and development but
anything else that is under ISO 9001.

ISO 9003 is for a business whose process does not include design control,
process control, purchasing or servicing, but uses inspection and testing to
ensure that final products and services meet specified requirements.

Element 4.1: Management Responsibility
The responsibility of executive level management in regard to quality
policy, goals, commitment and implementation of the company quality system
Here management must have a Quality Policy and have it understood
throughout the business. It is then managements responsibility to gather
resources and have trained employees to do the work. The Quality System is
then monitored by management representatives who report back to management
A Quality System must be used to ensure the product conforms to
specifications. The system will be described in documentation of sufficient detail
to include structure, processes, and procedures that ensure product quality
This system must be fully documented to fit ISO 9000 standards in a
quality manual. This manual should contain a table of contents and history of
the company (Stimson 168). This manual should also include customers
specifications and requirements (Stimson 165). The system should go with the
businesss mission and policy and show how its requirements should be met.
Written plans should be shown on how to fulfill customers standards.
A documented system for review and amendment of the contract, to
ensure customer performer agreement of expectations (Stimson 317).

Review of the contract will ensure the requirements are stated and
documented and will be met. Any amendments should be made to parts of the
A system is required to control, verify, and validate the designs of
products and processes to ensure adherence to specifications (Stimson 215).

There are three key types of cycles: requirements, specifications,
prototypes, acceptable design in the process of Design Control (Stimson 217).
Verification , validation and participation by external and internal customers are
Element 4.5: Document and Data Control
Control of the distribution of all documents and data related to quality, is
required to associate procedures describing the control mechanisms (Stimson
All documents and data should be controlled and authorized with changes
and removals occurring in a controlled manner (iso online).

A purchasing system must ensure the purchased product conforms to
specifications that subcontractors maintain quality criteria (Stimson 127).

Information on purchasing must be complete and accurate and venders
Element 4.7: Control of Customer-Supplied Product
A process control of any product that is provided by the customer is
required for use in the company supply systems (Stimson 249).

During receipt inspection delivery, condition, quantity and fitness of the
product should be checked and evaluated (Stimson 256).

Element 4.8: Product Identification and Traceability
Demanded by specifications or suitability, a system to identify and trace
purchase products during all stages of production. Traceability will include
identification of product within batch or lot (Stimson 259).

Inventory and production process is essential with use of identification.
Policies will identify those parts in receipt to delivery (Stimson 263).

The planning and implementation of production, installation, and service
processes affect quantity. Furthermore, it requires that these processes be
operated under controlled conditions (Stimson 265).

The process control system is made up of flexibility and customer
overview. Changes set baseline of quality (Stimson 2). Process control
depends on how the company chooses to define it, what materials to purchase
Element 4.10: Inspection and Testing
Inspection and testing activities are conducted in order to verify
adherence to specifications. Appropriate records will be maintained of the
results of these activities (Stimson 279).
Inspection and testing process has policies procedures, documentation
including status and employees methodologies (Stimson 289).

Element 4.11: Control of Inspection, Measuring, and Test Equipment
The control, calibration and maintenance of equipment, hardware and
software that is used for inspection, measuring and testing of product
conformance to specifications is required (Stimson 227).

Measurements made, equipment to be used are taken down and kept
record of as quality records. Methods are set for trained personnel (iso online).

Element 4.12: Inspection and Test Status
The status of a product is identified relative to conformance, to inspection
and test criteria. The identification process defined inappropriate procedures,
will be maintained throughout the production and post production process to
ensure that only an acceptable product is delivered (Stimson 291).

The test will determine if the product passes or fails inspection.

Element 4.13: Control of Nonconforming Product
A system that will control product that fails to meet specifications,
preclude unintended use, and define product disposition (Stimson 296).

Element 4.14: Corrective and Preventive Action
Systems are needed to correct and prevent non conformances.
Corrective or preventive actions will be appropriate to the risks (Stimson 37).

Formal process should be formed to correct or prevent the problem.

Element 4.15: Handling, Storage, Packing, Preservation, and Delivery
A documented system to control post productive activities from
acceptance by testing through delivery of product (Stimson 305).

This goes straight to the final customer and must concentrate on
customer satisfaction. The key is delivery (Stimson 313).

Element 4.16: Control of Quality Records
Documented procedures are required for the identification and
disposition of quality records. Quality records are required to demonstrate
conformance to the specifications and effectiveness of the quality system
Element 4.17: Internal Quality Audits
A program of regular and periodic internal quality audits are required to
determining the effectiveness of the quality system (Stimson 202).

IQA(internal quality audit) represents the customer self evaluation and
improvement. Audits will be based on documentations affecting quality(Stimson
A training program is required to identify training needs, resources,
schedule and records for all persons whose work affects quality. Personnel will
be assigned tasks that are appropriate to their level of training and experience
Management needs to be specific in what training an employee needs for
a certain position, then they must provide the training and assign tasks. All
employee training should be kept on record (Stimson 152).

The performance of service activities are specified in the contract.
Procedures will verify that the service meets specifications (Stimson 326).

Equipment and personnel must be controlled and products procedures
and methods should be carried out correctly (iso online).

Element 4.20: Statistical Techniques
The company is required to identify statistical techniques needed to
verify adherence to product specifications and system capability (Stimson 235).

Characteristics must be identified and then type of metrics is selected.
Chart results of data collection and methods, which must be based on
procedures and techniques (Stimson 239).
To become registered a business must prove that it has good
management qualities and organizational skills. Businesses usually book for a
registrar six months ahead and the audit can take up to twenty four months
depending on the size of the business (Henkoff 2). A smaller business will take
longer because their are fewer people to help during the registration and audit
(Metcalfe 1). However, educating and training employees would take less time
due to the small number of employees to educate (Barrier 5). A good quality
management will make the certification process easier. The business must
follow the ISO 9000 steps and document everything. They will be then audited
by an outside business person. The company must prove that it can handle its
own inspections, updating engineering drawings, maintaining the machinery and
equipment, training workers and dealing with customer complaints (Henkoff 3).
They dont have to prove that production is faster and customers are satisfied.
The audit is mainly based on the documentation (Barrier 4) of the data taken and
quizzing managers and factory workers (Henkoff 3). The auditor will then verify
if the company is up to what it promises to do and is moving towards its goals.
they then issue a certificate if the company passes (USAToday 1). The auditor
will return every six months to make sure everything is still up to its standards
and if not the company will lose its ISO 9000 certificate (Metcalfe 1). It is best if
a company performs internal audits to assure that everything is up to regulation.
The Certificate must also be renewed annually (Barrier 6) after an audit goes
An ISO certification requires business owners to make large capital
investments (Metcalfe 3) and has cost up to $200,000 (Henkoff 2). The cost of
certification has run into a problem with small businesses and has put up a
barrier between them and a competitive edge. However, small business are now
able to negotiate prices now that ISO 9000 is more popular (Barrier 2). And
even more good news, the IRS is allowing companies to deduct the cost of ISO
9000 certification (Bloomberg 1). States are also awarding grants to
manufacturing companies to help pay for certification. $400,000 was given to six
Long Island manufacturers by the states economic development agency, for
example (Martorana 1). So, cost will probably go down in the future once ISO
9000 gets more popular and whatever it does cost it will be tax deductible. This
will give more businesses to get the chance to become ISO 9000 certified and
form a more competitive business arena.

Customers have such a broad list of choices that today the competitive
field almost forces a company to be ISO 9000 certified. The certification helps
businesss compete, plan, audit and award (Henkoff 2) which means companies
who dont have it should get it. It is only implying that with out it their operating
system is incoherent by the workers and their quality system is poor. Foreign
consumers now demand ISO 9000 because they will know what they are going
to get when purchasing with that company (Metcalfe 2). ISO 9000 certification is
very important to the manufacturer because it saves money by reducing need for
outside quality audits and incoming products inspections (Barrier 1). Being ISO
9000 certified is very important to the customer, because he/she knows that the
business has quality management procedures and knows what quality is in the
product because it has the same standard through out the world. This opens
new global doors to companies which they would never get without ISO 9000.
Now, ISO 9000 is more recognized than when it first came out, but only by some
customers and only some companies have it. Two thirds of executives at
midsize manufacturing dont know what ISO 9000 is, they think it is a legal
requirement for doing business (Henkoff 2). The businesss who do have it
usually get chosen by the customers. During the year 2000 it will be impossible
to compete with out it because it will be a very recognized and a very popular
ISO has produced and developed standard systems for screw threads to
credit and telephone cards to the this way up sign on boxes to the ISBN
number in every book (iso online). Thousands of companies all over the world
are ISO 9000 certified. Here are some real life businesses that are certified and
stories on how they have used ISO 9000 as a competitive weapon.

Caterpillar Engines in Mosville, Illinois had customer complaints about
their engines not performing properly. ISO 9000 gave the manufacturers a
systematic way to order a design change, make sure they used only the latest
documents and made engines more efficiently. Their production time went down
and their customer satisfaction went up (Henkoff 3).

The Rockwell Internationals Allen-Bradley plant in Twinsburg, Ohio make
circuit boards and other electronics. Their problem was that they were extremely
unorganized. Tons of documentation and memos were posted up on a memo
board, most workers didnt get them until months later. Their management
quality was poor, so they got ISO 9000 certified. After getting certified within
one year their productivity improved 21%, time dropped 18% and product
Excalibur USA became ISO 9000 certified and more than $10 million was
saved in operating expenses in a year. They gained 30% more business.
Production increased, costs went down and customer satisfaction went up
ESPITI, a European software industry wanted to become more
competitive so they got ISO 9000 certified. Being certified was essential to them
because they knew it ensured quality and productivity and it is very good for
Uganda textile companies in Africa were getting hit by the worst cheap
imports of fabric and their sales were bad. Once ISO 9000 certified they had
new standards and fabric imported to them was good. It will lower production
cost and improve sales. Uganda is so satisfied with the improvement that fifty
more companies will have certification by the end of the year (Africa 1).

In Batam, Indonesia twelve companies were ISO 9000 certified. The
companies were chosen because they wanted to have a competitive edge in a
huge global market demand and wanted to attain a good quality working system
Cloister Spring Water Company in Lancaster, PA expanded by opening
up three new plants. However, they were afraid that water would be bottled and
delivered differently at each plant. ISO 9000 certification solved that problem
and in three years sales soared 250% more than they expected (USAToday 1).

ISO 9000 is a competitive weapon all over the world and is becoming
more and more popular. In the October 1998 issue of Quality Progress, a
survey of 1240 US companies showed that of the certified companies (iso
90% – thought it is a value-added quality system
87% – thought that it was necessary to remain competitive
78% – thought that it definitely improved quality within a company
73% – thought it will save money in the long run
99% – said that it cannot be implemented without management commitment.

Over 20,000 companies in the US are certified today. This shows that
businesses believe in a strong quality system, management quality,
improvement, profit and competitiveness. All these business essential make up
Bibliography:
Bibliogrphy
Stimson, William A. Beyond ISO 9000: How to Sustain Quality in a Dynamic
World. New York: Amacom, 1998.


Barrier, Micheal, Amy Zuckerman. Quality Standards the World Agrees on:
Small Businesses Can Meet ISO 9000 Standard. Nations Business
01 May 1994: 71-73.


Martorana, Jamie. Newsbreak: 6 LI Manufacturers Granted Funds. Newsday
29 November 1999: 1.


Raman, Prasanna. An Insight into ISO 9000 for Small Businesses. New
Straits Times 24 February 1998.


Metcalfe, Coll. Ventura County Business; The Business Beat: Firms Find ISO
9000 Certification Means Business. Los Angeles Times
02 March 1999: B1.


Henkoff, Ronald. Managing: The Hot New Seal of Quality. Fortune
28 June 1993: 116.


Surveyor Indonesia to Grant 12 ISO 9000/14000 Certificates. Asia Pulse
03 February 1998.


ISO 9000 Helps Firms Achieve Consistency. USA Today 27 May 1998: 02B.


Software Industry: ISO 9000 Key to Improving Europes Software
Performance. European Report 01 May 1996.


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