Lord Of The Flies Essay

The book, Lord of the Flys, can be interpreted in many different ways.
Depending on the point of view of the reader, William Golding has opinions on man and
society. Golding is inaccurate for making the assumption that all people are born with
evil within them and are not affected by their surroundings.
In the book, the author uses a being called the beast to simulate the fear and evil
people have inside. The boys on the island apparently see a beast in the forest, which
scares them and gives them nightmares. Phil says at a meeting, Last night I had a
dream, a horrid dream, fighting with things. I was outside the shelter by myself, fighting
with things, those twisty things in the trees. Phil had heard things about he beast from
other boys, which caused him to have the nightmare. He is a young boy, on an island
with no supervision and is afraid of whats is happening to him and where he is.
Without thoughts of the beast, provoked from the other boys, Phil would never have
experienced this nightmare. Not only the thoughts that the boys think affect them, but the
things they see cause them to have evil intentions.
Golding used a pigs head on a stick called the lord of the flys as another
animation to substitute the thoughts of evil and fear within the boys. Seeing the head
causes Simon to have hallucinations of this head talking to him. The Lord of the Flys
. After hearing this, Simon returns to the
other boys, who are rallying around a fire, indulged in a victorious chant, and is soon
trampled to death by the preoccupied boys. Being away from civilization has driven the
boys to near delirium and as any person does, they easily got wrapped up in their success.
These kids are too young and inexperienced to be alone in the world without any kind of
civilization to keep them from losing sanity.
In the book Lord of the Flys, William Golding is false in making the conjecture
that every person is born with an evil within them. Each person on Earth is born with
entirely different thought, feelings, opinions and emotions as the next. Each one of the
boys on the island affected by every other boy in different ways, which explains every
action that every boy made.

james coopers

James Fenimore Cooper
James Fenimore Cooper was born in Burlington, New Jersey on September 15, 1789. He was born the eleventh of twelve children to William and Elizabeth Cooper. His real name is James Kent Cooper, he tried to change it so he could inherit some of his mothers wealth, but the court system would not allow it. He uses Fenimore as his penname (Hart 133). When he was about one year old, his family moved to the frontier of Lake Otsego, New York. His father established the settlement of Cooperstown at the basin of the Susquehanna River (Ulger 336).

Coopers parents sent him to a private prep school in Albany, New York and from there, he was accepted into Yale. He remained at Yale for two years, until he was expelled for a childish prank. Coopers father made him join the armed forces and he chose the United States Navy in 1802. He signed on as a seaman on a vessel bound from Maine to England and received his commission. Cooper soon found out that more discipline was present in the Navy than at Yale (Hart 138). After two years, Cooper took a furlough and was assigned to a group of naval officers who were trying to establishing a fresh-water navy in the Great Lakes region. He did not like the assignment but he knew that as long as his father was alive that he had nothing else to do (Crystal 789).

The death of Coopers father and his marriage are the two things that brought a change to his life. The death of his father was a tragedy at the hands of a political opponent, and this caused him to inherit, together with his brothers, a portion of a large estate unfortunately soon dissipated by all of them. Second was his marriage to Susan De Lancey in 1811, at the time he was twenty-one and she was only eighteen (Haycraft 178).

In 1820, Cooper published his first literary work, Precaution, on a challenge from his wife. This novel was a disappointment to Cooper. He published his second work of American Literature, The Spy, and a year later in 1821. This novel was modeled after Sir Walters Scotts Waverly, with the exception that it was set during the American Revolution. The Spy brought Cooper international recognition and wealth. Coopers third novel, The Pioneers, was the first of five novels of a series that made up the Leatherstocking Tales. These were some of the most popular frontier novels featuring a frontiersman by the name of Natty Bumpoo, or Hawkeye. The Pioneers is generally considered to be first genuine American novel. The five novels of the series were not written in their narrative order (Howse 116).

Cooper and his wife had five children when they moved to Europe in 1826 and stayed there until 1833 so their children would have the best education available at the time. When Cooper and his family returned to America in 1833, he found that he was quite unpopular due to his work Notions of the Americans and Letter to General Lafayette. He wrote these two works while he and his family were still living in Europe (Ulger 357). He left New York City mainly because of his unpopularity and the harsh feelings being shown to his family. Cooper decided to go back to Cooperstown, New York. He decided that he and his family were going to live like his family and raise his children as he was raised (Haycraft 179).
Cooper died on September 14, 1851, one day before his sixty-second birthday. His works reflects that of Shakespeare and Milton, and used late eighteenth-century and early nineteenth-century poets as a guiding light for his writings. He also used the Bible, which he had studied as a young man, to mirror its names and its style or language. He saw that the role of literature was that of a way to enhance everyday life. Cooper was, and continues to be an immensely popular writer, as well as, he is generally considered to be the first major American novelist (Ulger 357).

Crystal, David. The Cambridge Biographical Encyclopedia. New York: U of Cambridge P, 1998.

Hart, James D. The Oxford Companion to American Literature. Oxford: Oxford U P, 1965.

Haycraft, Howard and Stanley J. Kunitz. American Authors: 1600-1900. New York: H.W. Wilson Co., 1977.

Howse, Ray Semon. Cooper: Sea Tales. New York: The Library of America, 1991.

Ulger, Leonard. American Writers: A Collection of Literary Biographies. St. Paul: U of Minnesota, 1974.

Edwin Arlington Robinson biography

1) There is a drear and lonely tract of hell
2) From all the common gloom removed afar:
3) A flat, sad land it is, where shadows are,
4) Whose lorn estate my verse may never tell.
5) I walked among them and I knew them well:
6) Men I had slandered on life’s little star
7) for churls and sluggards; and I knew the scar
8) upon their brows of woe ineffable.
9) But as I went majestic on my way,
10) Into the dark they vanished, one by one,
11) Till, with a shaft of God’s eternal day,
12) The dream of all my glory was undone,–
13) And, with a fool’s importunate dismay,
14) I heard the dead men singing in the sun.
The composition date isnt known but the format of the sonnet is:
Edwin Arlington Robinson was born in 1869 and he died in 1935. He was 66 years old when he died.

Edwin Arlington Robinson was born on Dec. 22, 1869, at Head Tide in Maine and until 1897 lived at the family home in Gardiner, Maine, aside from several years as a student at Harvard University.
For the rest of his life he moved in New York and devoted his life to writing poetry.
Robinson earned a small living first as a subway inspector and then in the city’s customs office. He resided in rooms at boarding houses in New York and Yonkers, at the Hotel Judson on Washington Square, in Brooklyn at 810 Washington Ave., and at last on West 42nd Street.
His Collected Poems in 1922 received the Pulitzer Prize and earned him a degree as Doctor of Literature at Yale University.
Although best known for his short poems, long poems such as Captain Craig (1902), Lancelot (1920), The Man Who Died Twice (1924), and Tristram (1927) earned him acclaim from his peers.
The Man Who Died Twice and Tristram The last two of these won Pulitzer Prizes in 1925 and 1927, when he was elected as a member of the National Academy of Arts and Letters.
Robinson never married but enjoyed the company of many friends. He died of cancer in hospital in New York on April 6, 1935. A few of his most known poems are, The Children of the Night Captain Craig The Town Down the River The Man against the Sky The Three Taverns and Avons Harvest. He had 3 Pulitzer prizes awarded to him.

For the first twenty years of Robinson’s writing career, he had difficulty in getting published and attracting an audience. He published his first two volumes privately and friends secretly guaranteed the publication of the third. He did receive positive reviews from the beginning, however, and with the publication of The Man Against the Sky in 1916 his reputation was secure.
For the rest of his life he was widely regarded as “America’s foremost poet,” as William Stanley Braithwaite put it. Both academics and the general public held him in high esteem, as attested by the fact of his winning three Pulitzer Prizes for poetry for volumes published in 1921, 1924, and 1927, when his Tristram became a national best-seller.

Although Robinson’s subject matter and philosophical stance differ markedly from that of his predecessors’, his form is unremittingly traditional. He considered movies, prohibition, and free verse “a triumvirate from hell,” and said that if free verse were as easy to write as it was difficult to read, he was not surprised there was so much of it.

In his early work Robinson experimented with difficult French forms, like the villanelle and rondeau, but his longer work is written almost exclusively in blank verse. Robinson is one of America’s greatest practitioners of the sonnet and the dramatic monologue.

I think its about a guy going to hell
I think he sees like people he knew there
Maybe he hurt some of the people
its about a guy who lives his life with a extravagant things, and one day relizes that it means nothing to god. God doesnt not judge u by the material things one owns
There is a drear and lonely tract of hell
He has a sense of hell in his life
From all the common gloom removed afar
from all the misery taken away
A flat, sad land it is, where shadows are,
there is no one there with him to stand by him
Whose lorn estate my verse may never tell.
No one will be here to ever hear this
I walked among them and I knew them well:
Only his friends shall hear the poem
Men I had slandered on life’s little star
All the men I killed in the world
for churls and sluggards; and I knew the scar
I knew the consequences for high and low classes or people
upon their brows of woe ineffable.
They couldnt show all of their sorrow and misery
But as I went majestic on my way,
I walked around as I held my head up high
Into the dark they vanished, one by one,
All of my friends are dying, slowly and are being singled out
Till, with a shaft of God’s eternal day,
Now they are in heaven
The dream of all my glory was undone,–
Everything I have worked for, I have lost
And, with a fool’s importunate dismay,
With a man in denial and quick sadness, this describes a manic-depressive
I heard the dead men singing in the sun.
While people were in hell, they were hoping for heaven

The Matrix – Finding Reality In The Matrix

Movies are wonderful things; they can inspire, spark debate, and even make you believe in what you are seeing. Virtual Reality is a creation of a highly interactive computer-based multimedia environment in which the user becomes a participant with the computer in a “virtually real” world. Movies and virtual reality can do the same thing: make you believe what is presented to you. Although there are several movies which use virtual reality in the plot, such as The Lawnmower Man, and Hackers, the one most prevalent to me is The Matrix. Although this movie contains many aspects of virtual reality, it stands out in my mind so much because it suggests that the world in which we live, is a virtual one. The Matrix has many different aspects of virtual reality and they are incorporated throughout the movie.

Virtual reality is involved in this movie in one major way: it suggests that our world is merely a virtual reality program that was created in order to “control” humans and keep them from the “real world,” which has been taken over by artificial intelligence who harvest humans for power. The main character in the movie is Gary Anderson, affectionately known to the hacker-world as Neo. He is contacted by people who have escaped the Matrix, and through a series of adventures, joins them. At one point in the movie, Neo goes to a psychic to find out if he is the one person who can save the rest of us from the Matrix. While waiting to see the psychic, Neo encounters a boy, there for the same reason, bending spoons without touching them. He watches and asks how he does it. The boy responds in a typical virtual reality response, “concentrate not on the spoon itself, but that there is no spoon.” That is how virtual reality works: you can interact with everything in the virtual world, but it’s not really there.
Everytime Neo enters the Matrix, a plug is inserted into the back of his head and he is hooked up to machines. Virtual Reality also uses such equipment. Granted, it is not as drastic as having a probe thrust into the back of your head, but there is special equipment needed such as helmets, gloves, and eyephones. The glove is made of thin Lycra and is fitted with sensors that monitor finger flexion, extension, hand position and orientation. It is connected to a computer through fiber optic cables. Sensor inputs enable the computer to generate an on-screen image of the hand that follows the operator’s hand movements. The glove also has miniature vibrators in the fingertips to provide feedback to the operator from grasped virtual objects. The system allows the operator to interact by grabbing and moving a virtual object within a simulated room while experiencing the “feel” of the object. The eyephone is a head mounted stereo display that shows a computer-made virtual world in full color and 3D; sound effects are also delivered to the headset increase the realism. With this equipment, a person could believe that they are part of the program in the virtual reality system.
The same idea is dealt with in The Matrix. If you die while in The Matrix, you died outside. Even though you know it is not real, your body thinks it is. A similar example would be The Lawnmower Man, a Stephen King movie in which scientists take a mentally retarded man and use virtual reality to try to learn basic things and help him be a normal citizen. Their plan backfires when the man takes over the computer and essentially “moves in” to the hard drive of the computer. Both of these, The Matrix and The Lawnmower Man, show the possible dangers of virtual reality. This is not a danger when simple playing games with virtual reality. The problem comes when you are incorporated into the virtual world for longer than you are in the real world. The person learns to live in the virtual world and never wants to leave. This is the danger of becoming too involved with virtual reality, so involved that you believe that you are part of that world.
Virtual reality is a powerful thing. It has the power to help us learn, live out fantasies, and even influence our behavior. Movies can do the same. The movie industry is becoming quickly aware of the many advantages to marketing virtual reality. Virtual reality is still an infant; people do not know very much about it and are very curious; The Matrix, is a movie about a kind of virtual reality. Maybe we do live in a Matrix and need to realize that there is no spoon, or maybe we should just keep our feet planted solidly in reality.
Works Cited
King, Stephen. The Lawnmower Man, 1992.

The Matrix. Warner Bros., 1999.

Report On Reding in the Dark

The novel, Reading in the Dark, is written by Seamus Deanne. This book is written from the viewpoint of a little boy who explains the episodes of his life as he grows up. Apparently, Deanne said in an interview with the Irish Times, that the accounts in the story are taken from his own family along with the other families in his neighborhood in Derry, Northern Ireland. As I read the book, I didn’t think it was a true story, but presumed it was fictional. I think I thought this because it was all about hauntings and ghost stories and it didn’t strike me as being a true account someone’s life. After I read it, I found out that all of the accounts in the story are true, and it changed the way that I evaluated at the book. I now saw the book as the author’s way to explain himself and let the reader know where he is coming from, rather than just any fictional story. I think that he stresses how the episodes in his early life really effected him and ultimately resulted in him becoming a writer.
Before I realized the author was the narrator of the book it was not as personal and I didn’t feel so much for the narrator. However, when I found out he was writing about himself it became more personal and it gives the reader a real sense of what his life was like while he was growing up.
The book points out in various ways that the narrator was not like the other kids in the story. He was always associating with adults rather then socializing with kids his own age. The only time that he went out with kids his own age it ended up in a disaster, Irene’s boyfriend punched him. This event discouraged him even more from socializing with kids his own age. Several chapters of the book were devoted to the narrator hearing stories from various adults such as Katie, his grandfather and Joe. These are stories that are not just told to anyone and the reader gets a sense that the people telling the narrator the stories see something different in him. They tell him the stories as oppose to someone else for a reason. The narrator enjoys hearing these stories and is very intrigued by them. This indicates that the author always had the potential to be a writer because his interests and thoughts are different from most of the kids his age.

All of these different stories of family affairs, hauntings and ghosts had a major effect on the narrator and possible encouraged him to be a writer. The narrator was told all of this “secret” information and he had to learn at a very young age how to deal with it. For example the story his grandfather told him about Tony Mcllhenny and Eddie and how it related to his mother and Katie. The narrator was now faced with the decision to keep this information to himself, not letting his mother, father or Katie know that he knew. This was very hard on him and really effected the relationships within his family from then on. I think this is probably another reason he began writing. He kept so much information inside for so long and writing was probably a major release for him.

In conclusion, all of the people in the narrator’s childhood, his family’s history and the stories he was told all effected him greatly and were a major explanation for him becoming an author. I believe that is the central message in Reading in the Dark.

None Provided8

This article, by Maggie Gallagher, a scholar at the Institute for American Values, is in response to an unsigned editorial in the New York Times called “The Divorce Debate.” Gallagher opposes the views of the editorial and tries to answer the question: “What, if anything, can we do about the fact that at least half of our marriages fail?”
I was very turned-off by this article. First, it starts off with what the author thinks should be a shared assumption; the assumption stated that divorce is harmful for children. Not everyone believes that. She goes on by asking, “What……can we do?” Gallagher continues with her article by putting down other states because of their divorce stipulations. She says that they are not working. Yes, she did back that statement up with information from Judith Wallerstein’s book, Second Chance, and statistics from the Journal of Marriage and Family, but they were buried between the many instances in which she shared the views of her opposition.
The way she recognized the reasoning behind the “speedy spouse disposal” or “delayed backlash” was a nice touch. Unfortunately, Gallagher was so involved with trying to show the other side of things, she forgot to give the reasoning behind her own ideas. Through the entire article, she used negative words or phrases to express her feelings on divorce; they include: harmful, delayed backlash, speedy spouse removal, eliminating, marital wrongdoing, dissolve a marriage, bitter conflict, unhappy marriages, bleak times, punishments, messy and irrelevant, and torment. However, she never once suggested a solution for the problem of divorce. How can one argue with the ideas of others, if that person has no argument of their own?
After reading this article, I am pretty confident that the author has not personally been through a divorce of her own. This alone, could cause me to question her. I feel that a more personal article involving some of her own experiences would have been more convincing. I know that she was writing with a logical approach, but I believe an emotional one would have been better. Divorce is a topic that touches every person in so many different ways. If this article would have reached to the heart, it would have been more persuasive.

Though I am unhappy with the way the topic was approached, I am sure that the essay was not quickly written. Their was a lot of research involved in this article. Gallagher explained how different states came up with different solutions for divorce. She discussed the no-fault divorce and the waiting period before a divorce. Her statistic was a great bonus.

Divorce is certainly a great topic for debate as we head into the new millennium. There are many assumptions made about divorce, both shared and unshared. Some people believe that divorce is always a bad thing, no matter what the situation. Others
believe it’s a matter of what is best for the children (if there are any). Gallagher challenges the assumption that “no-fault will…….remake divorce into a kinder, gentler institution.
I believe that divorce is not necessarily the issue. The real question is, “How do we make marriages work?”

Venus africanus nocturnal

and by what grand design were you made
the creator hath fashioned you from the moon
to enlighten the darkness that dwells deep within the fibers of my heart
to refreshen the romantic winds of the night
to complement the duality of my weakness
to guide me through unchartered depths of my spirit
you hath bewitched me by your romance
lost in the magnitude of your beauty
inebriated by your gentle touch and the soul of your eyes
the night disrobes your heavenly body
you summons me to your logic of love
wanting the treasures of your Queendom
what manner of beauty are you
and by what grand design were you made
the creator hath fashioned you from the moon
to enlighten the darkness that dwells deep within the fibers of my heart

Chemical Engineer

Chemical Engineer
The chemical engineer is an invaluable link between scientific principles and manufacturing realities. It
involves the use of chemical, physical, and engineering principles.

The scientist in a laboratory does basic research to develop new compounds and processes. When the
scientist discovers a product that may be useful, the chemical engineer takes over. They adapt the
product for big scale manufacturing. They do this by designing a plant to produce the item on large
scale. Thus the engineer is the link between the laboratory and commercial production. The chemical
engineer’s earnings depend on several factors. Their educational background dictates much of what
the engineer will earn. Also, experience and the location of the employer will make a very big
difference. The starting salary for a chemical engineer with a Bachelor’s Degree can range from
$30,000 to over 35,000 per year. An engineer with a Master’s Degree can earn anywhere from
$35,000 to over $40,000. A chemical engineer with a doctorate can earn $45,000 to well over $60,000.

“To be successful in chemical engineering, one must be curious and persevering” (Finney IV 13). The
person must be flexible in order to adapt to each phase encountered. They must also be ambitious.

Honesty is another very important trait. They must be cooperative since they are a member of a team.

In order to get a job as a chemical engineer, a person should have at least a Bachelor’s Degree. The
degree should be in chemical engineering. The degree is acquired by four years of study. Subjects
studied include engineering, drawing, chemistry, mathematics, English and speech, computing,
economics, and social studies. The actual specialization in chemical engineering is usually in the third
year of study. There are many advantages that go along with this job. The career offers challenges in
both science and industry. Also, the work allows for other companies to expand and hire more people.

Thus, this creates new jobs. There are also disadvantages. First, there is a great responsibility placed
onto the engineer. Also, there is a great deal of pressure involved with this kind of work. The future
for the chemical engineer looks very promising. As new drugs and vaccines develop, the chemical
engineer will be needed. This a new and exciting field to work in. Many people are becoming more
and more interested in it. This increase in engineers called for and increase in jobs.

Someone interested in becoming a chemical engineer should concentrate on the sciences in high
school. They should be “good” at chemistry and physics. Also, they should enjoy these classes.

Mathematics classes are also important. A knowledge of the computer is extremely important.

Many colleges offer engineering programs. More specifically, most offer chemical engineering
programs. MIT offers an excellent chemical engineering program. It is known world-wide for its
engineering department. Carnegie Melon also has a great program. Montana University is of another
college with a great engineering program.

The occupation of a chemical engineer is a very exciting one. It requires a lot of responsibility and
hard work. But, if you enjoy being part of a team and working hard, this is the right job for you.

The Law Enforcement Profession

The Law Enforcement Profession
In order to understand comptemporary law enforcemment, we should
recognize the conditions that impact our profession. It is agreed upon by many
scholars that major changes in law enforcement occur every five years. Policing
is sometimes characterize”… like a sandbar in a river, subject to being
changed continuously by the currents in which it is immersed…” (Swanson,
Territo and Taylor, p. 2). However, in recent years some major changes have
occurred in a shorter time period.

Innovations in law enforcement
During the past two decades, I have observed major changes in the
viewpoint of society towards police officer’s as the symbol of trust and dignity,
the technological advances of communication and information systems in law
enforcement, and the revision of selection and hiring practices for police
officers. Organizational change occurs both as a result of internal and
external agents (Swanson, Territo and Taylor, p. 664). These changes have
manifested both positive and negative reverberations in the way we perform our

Police officials have contemplated for years over the key to maintaining
a positive image for their organization. Unfortunately, several incidents in
the past years have altered society’s perception of police in some communities.

Police in America are no longer strangers to innovation born of scandal. Law
enforcement agencies nationwide have repeatedly been shaken by controversy and
forced to make undesirable concessions. Has law enforcement failed to maintain
the high standards required by the profession? The cost of public trust is high.

It increases each time faith must be regain.

Historically, law enforcement agencies throughout the nation have
experienced periods of low confidence in communities preceding episodes deemed
to be a breach of trust. Early pioneers in law enforcement history such as
August Vollmer (1902 – 1932). Berkeley Police Department and J. Edgar Hoover
(1924) the Federal Bureau of Investigation made numerous advancements towards
improving the professionalism of law enforcement (Anderson and Newman, p. 119 –
120). Other attempts were made in 1956 by the International Association of
Chiefs of Police adopted “The Law Enforcement Code Of Ethics” (Wilson and
McClaren, p.8)
Examples of several historical events locally have attributed to
society’s decline in respect for police. For example, nine members of a Los
Angeles County Sheriff’s Department special narcotics squad were charged with
misappropriating tens of thousands of dollars confiscated in drug raids (L. A.

Times, p. 4, Sept. 9, 1989). Another local incident involved 80 Los Angeles
police officers stormed and wrecked an apartment and allegedly beat several
residents on “Dalton Street.” The city was forced to settled in a civil law
suit by the resident with a settlement of $3 million dollars of taxpayers money
(L. A. Times, p. 1-2, August 1, 1988). This incident generated major outcry
from the minority community to overhaul the use of force policy and procedure
within the department.

Nationally, five New York City police officers were charged with murder
in the slaying of a suspect in Queens. All five officers were arraigned on
murder charges in the death of Federico Pereira, 21 years of age, a car theft
suspect who was punched, kicked, and strangled as he was being arrested. This
is one in a string of accusations of bruality made against New York officers in
recent years (The New York Times, March 21, 1991, p. A 1). In the south,
the incident of Officer Donald Jeffries who was honored as Mississippi’s officer
of the year in 1993. He alleged that mental stress was a factor in his robbery
of a bank, however, a federal judge in Mobile ruled that he was competent to
stand trial for the charge (USA Today, May 13, 1994, p. 8 A).

The case of Arthur McDuffie (Dec. 17, 1979) in Miami, a black male
died after a high speed police chase. The police reports indicated that
McDuffie died from being thrown from his motorcycle during the chase. The
results of an investigation disclosed that the McDuffie’s death may have been
caused by police instead of an accident. After being indicted and found not
guilty by an all white jury, riots broke out in black neighborhoods,
especially Liberty City resulting in arson and looting that left 18 persons dead
and more than 300 injured. This catastrophe forced the Miami Police
Department to reexamine and revise their use of force policies and procedures
(CQ Researcher, p. 645).

The Jeffrey L. Dahmer Case characterize a situation when the police fail
to properly handle a call of a suspicous nature. Dahmer was charged with
murdering at least 15 young males. On May 27, 1993, two Milwaukee citizens
reported a naked young male in the middle of the street bleeding and unable to
stand. The boy name was Konerak Sinthasomphone, a 14 year of laotain boy.

Dahmer was able to persuade the officer that the boy was a live in lover. The
boy was later slain by Dahmer in his apartment after the officers left the scene.

A storm of portest came from the minority and homosexual communities accused
the officers of displaying racial prejudice. The officers were also criticized
for dismissing the incident as “a boyfriend-boyfriend thing” (CQ Researcher, p.


One of the most celebrated cases in recent times was the beating of a
black motorist by several white police officers in Los Angeles. It stirred
nationwide concern about police brutality. On March 3, 1991, Rodney Glen King,
25 years of age, was severely beaten by Los Angeles police officers after being
stopped at the termination of a vehicle pursuit, which was originally started by
the California Highway Patrol. A videotape of the incident is shown repeatedly
on television over the next few days. The aftermath of the trial that acquitted
the officers involved in the Rodney King beating speaks highly of the sentiment
felt in the minority community (ICLAPD, p. 14-15).

Another discouraging sign that little has changed is the continuing
pattern of police abuse. Most recently on July 29, 1994 Compton Police Officer
Michael Jackson was captured on videotape striking a 17 year old male in the
head with his baton. This scene did not win sentiment from the public nor
revitalize the compassion felt by many after the Rodney King incident. While
this incident appears unjustified and even later deemed to be justified, it
will not help the image of law enforcement.

Some citizens truly believe the police represent the wealthy and not the
poor. Two researchers Geoffery P. Alpert and Roger G. Durham (1988) examined
different ethics diversed communities in Miami. There, they discovered much
more negative and suspicious attitudes toward the police and regard them as
“representatives of the majority class”, not “agents of social control” (CQ
Researcher, p. 650). The media have also contributed to the fracturing by
playing up dfferences and tensions.

As citizens spend more time working with the police, they learn more
about the police function. Experience has shown that as citizen’s knowledge of
the police increases, their respect for the police increases as well. This
increased respect, in turn, leads to greater support for the police. The
image of the police might benefit from the implementation of Community-Involved
Programs in today’s organizations. The Los Angeles Police Department and many
other agencies are exploring Community-Based Policing to help heal the wounds
left by conduct perceived by the public as police brutality (Los Angeles Times,
April 17, 1994). Police administrators must be aware of public opinion
because… Public confidence in a police department is directly related to the
image that citizens have of their police, and these images are formed from the
impressions people gain about law enforcement…” (Earle, p. 20).

As society changes, technology changes to address the enormous demands
of the world. Police managers across the country are faced with the dilemma of
decreased fiscal resources and the same responsibility to maintain high service
levels. In order to be effective, law enforcement agencies must aggressively
exploit the new technological advances in radio and telephone systems. For the
last two decades several technological advances have aided law enforcement in
becoming more efficent and effective in serving their communities.

For example, in November 1992, the Morgan Hill Police Department’s
implementation of mail-out reports were handled by the computer system. The
department made minor modifications to their PC network-based Computer aided
dispatching (CAD) system. The process begins when the police dispatcher
receives a call from a victim and types the basic report information into the
computer. The computer automatically generate a partially completed, pre-
addressed incident report form, which is then mailed to the victim. After the
victim completes the form, he or she returns it to the police department. The
department received a favorable response from the community on its Citizen
Assisted Reporting System (CARS) (California Peace Officer, p. 15).

The new technology and equipment available to law enforcement is only
limited by the imagination. Several years ago California was the poineer in the
use of mobile data terminals (MDTs) in its patrol cars. These low-band radio-
driven systems allow officers to access all of the available law enforcement
database systems to receive and send messages. Officers could type messages
meant just for the dispatcher, and they could send typed messages back and
forth to other mobile units (California Peace Officer, p. 13).

With the introduction of radio and satellite driven system on the market,
law enforcement agencies will be able to link each patrol unit through a laptop
computer to a broad array of databases and systems which include NCIC, DMV,
CLETS, CJIS, PIN, county records, departmental databases and more. Some
systems are capable of displaying a geopgraphical map depicting all previous
crimes in an area by type and where they occurred. The reports of all crimes in
the last 48 hours can be called to see what was written about the occurrence.

These Personal Data Terminal (PDTs) or Mobile Data Computer (MDCs) can also be
used to input, transmit or download reports at the station (California Peace
Officer, p. 13).

The more advanced mobile computer terminals feature built-in peripheral
devices such as mobile printers, automatic vehicle locator (AVL), fingerprint
scanner, mobile camera, magnetic stripe card reader, and bar code scanner
with a color display screen.

In summary, the profession of law enforcement is continually changing
because of the demands placed on it by society

Ponce de Leon and the Early Explorationof Florida

Juan Ponce de Leon was born in 1460, in Tierra de Campos Paleia, in Leon, Spain (Ponce, 1996).

He came from a noble family and entered the royal household as a page for Pedro Nunez de Guzman, at the
Court of Aragon. Later, young Ponce de Leon would become a solider for Spain and fight in the battles to
drive the Moors from Granada (Blassingame, 1991).

In 1493, Leon sailed with Christopher Columbus on his second voyage to America (Ponce, 1996).

He was a member of the forces that enslaved the Indians in Hispaniola.This was the European and Spanish
way. Few explores would look upon the natives they encountered as anything more than talking animals.

For the year of 1502 he was a captain under the governor of Hispaniola, Nicolas de Ovando (Thompson,
1990). During his time as captain he would suppress an Indian uprising. For this he was rewarded with the
governorship of Higuey (Blassingame, 1991).

Ponce de Leon would remain in Hispaniola until 1503. In this year he would be intrigued by the
tales of gold to be found in Borinquen, known as the modern Puerto Rico (Ponce, 1994). He sailed to
explore and settle the island. He landed on August 12, 1508 and soon conquered the island and was
granted governorship of the island. There he carved himself a large estate, where he built a castle
(Thompson, 1990).

Ovanado was soon replaced with Diego Columbus, as governor of Hispaniola. And Columbus
placed Juna Ceron as the new governor of Puerto Rico. For two years Leon fought to keep his
governorship, but he was removed from the position. He was advised by King Ferdinand to find new land
(Thompson 1990).

The Indians of Hispaniola worked as slaves for the Europeans. They would tell great stories of a
place called Bimini. It was a land filled with great riches. Ponce de Leon heard a different story from an
old Indian woman. She added an interesting twist to her story. In her tale she told him of a magic fountain
that turned middle aged and old persons in to young vibrant men and women. If the riches did not attract
Ponce de Leon, the story of this fountain did. He was in his fifties and since his political career had failed,
he figured, it was as good a time as any to explore the land (1990).

Ponce de Leon left San German, Puerto Rico on March 3, 1513 and sailed with a fleet of three
ships heading northwest toward Bimini. The chain of seven hundred Bahama islands was on his route but
time would not allow him to explore each of them. He did visit the island of San Salvador where
Columbus made his first landfall two decades before. The crew sighted the coast of America on March 3,
1513. This was Easter Sunday so he named the land Florida after the Spanish name for Easter, Pascua de
Flores (Ponce, 1993). The first sighting took place near present day St. Augustine, which was to be
founded fifty-two years later (1990).

Six days after they sighted land they found a safe place to dock their ships.The royal banner of
Spain was then flown over the new land. They expected the same lack of resistance as they had
experienced when they came ashore at Hispaniola, but they were in for a surprise. The natives were fierce
fighters and less enthusiastic of the appearance of these strange white men. Although their bow and arrows
were not of significance to the Spaniards, but the poisoned arrows they used were. Ponce de Leon only
went upon land when it was absolutely necessary. He never had the chance to explore the land for himself

Ponce de Leon felt it was best to find a safer harbor. The fleet sailed south to the modern-day
Cape Canaveral. The ships were caught in the strong current of the Gulf Stream which forced them to
struggle for weeks along the Florida Keys. Ponce de Leon finally decided to turn around and head home.

He was so overwhelmed with his discovery that he sailed directly to Spain (Ponce 1994).

Ponce de Leon figured that this was a smart move on his part because three ships were not enough
to do a proper job exploring the new land. He hoped that the king would give him permission and the
equipment to explore his new land. Coming before the king, Ponce de Leon told him about the great island
of Florida. The king agreed that the land should be explored further. He promised Ponce de Leon that if he
conquered it, he would be rewarded with its governorship (1990).

Ponce de Leon was kept busy by the Carib Indians in the West Indies. It was not until 1521 that
he departd for Florida. This time he was prepared; he sailed with two armed ships, two hundred men and
fifty horses. The conquistador was to blame for the great fighting force. He had sunk his whole fortune in
to the expedition to colonize this new land (Ponce, 1993).

Little did Ponce de Leon know that Florida’s geography had already been settled. In 1519, the
same year Magellan was searching for a strait into the Pacific Ocean far to the south, Alonzo Alvarez de
Pineda was searching for the same strait in the area of Florida. He sailed up the coast of Florida and then
continued west following the coastline until he reached the modern-day city of Tampico, Mexico. On his
way home Pineda came upon a river that he named Rio del Espiritu Santo (River of the Holy Ghost). It is
now believed that this river was the Mississippi (1990).

Ponce was now hoping to find the land of Bimini which he believed to be in the interior of
Florida, because the coast line was mapped. At this time Leon was in his sixty’s and time was short. They
were met by a large group of Indians when they made their way to shore. Although the Spaniards
were well equiped, the Indians would defeat them. The Indians had powerful bows and arrows; the arrows
were so strong that they were able to crack helmets. Many of the men were killed, many more were
wounded, including Ponce de Leon. An Indian arrow had pierced his armor and struck him in the thigh.

His men carried him off the beach during their retreat (1990).

The plans for a settlement were now destroyed. There was no doctor aboard their ship, so the
crew had no choice but to immediately set sail for Havana. Juan Ponce de Leon did not make it; he died
before they reached Cuba. Other explorers would try to follow Ponce de Leon example in the exploration
of Florida, but most of them would encounter the same result as he did (1990).

Panfilo de Narvaez was the first after Ponce de Leon to come to Florida. He came in 1528,
arriving near Tampa Bay with about 400 men. They met the unfriendly natives there, but they also found a
small amount of gold. The Spaniards became very excited with this discovery. The indians told them that
they could find the gold in the land of Apalachee which is today the Tallahassee area. They did not find
any gold in the land of Apalachee so they decided to turn back. They built rafts and drifted along the coast
of Florida. Most of the men were dead by now but a few were able to make it to the coast of Isla de
Malhado. This island was possibly Galveston Island. After eight years only four men survived. One man
was Nunez Cabeca de Vaca who reached Mexico. The survivors told stories of finding wealth in the
interior of Florida. The stories encouraged many explorers; Marcos de Niza, Coronado, Cabrillo and Soto
(Coler & Shofner, 1991).

Hernando de Soto and his fleet, with over six hundred people left Cuba and reached the Florida
coast on May 25, 1539. It would be left to Soto to end the mystery surrounding Florida. There he found an
indian prisoner, Juan Ortiz. The natives had no gold or silver, but they told stories of Indians living in the
North that had an immense amount of gold and silver that they were looking for. Soto went in search of
those indians only to discover that they had no precious metals. Soto took many natives hostage. He
seized Indian chiefs and many Indian women. He demanded that many Indians be provided as bearers and
the Indian women be provided as concubines for the Spaniards (1991).

Soto decided to travel further north in search of the fabled riches. When he left his camp he took
the Pensacola chief. He then traveled to the Indian village of Cofitachequi. There he was greeted by the
chieftainess, who gave him a string of pearls. There the Spaniards found a vast amount of pearls, about two
hundred pounds of them in the local burial sites. They left Cofitachequi and headed north, then toward
west, and finally toward the south. Hernando de Soto died on May 21, 1542 (1991).

The viceroy of New Spain, Luis de Velasco, choose Tristan de Luna y Arellano to head the
expedition to Santa Elena. Luna’s expedition reached Mobile Bay on August 14, but then quickly moved to
Pensacola Bay. They named Pensacola Bay Santa Maria Filipina, after the Virgin Mary and King Philip II
of Spain. The viceroy ordered Luna to move immediately to Santa Elena. Luna was then suffering from a
mental depression and was not able to make the trip to Santa Elena so the viceroy replaced him with Angel
de Villafane (1991).

Blassingame, W (1991). Ponce de Leon. Philadelphia: Chelsea Juniors.

Coler, W.S., ; Shofner, J.H. (1991). Florida: From the Beginning to 1992. Houston: Pioneer
Publications, Inc.

Ponce de Leon (1993). Microsoft (R) Encarta, Copyright Microsoft Corporation. Copyright 1993 Funk ;
Wagnall’s Corporation.

Ponce de Leon (1994). Compton’s NewMedia Inc. Compton’s learning Company.

Ponce de Leon (1996). Prodigy (R) interactive personal service. Excerpted from Compton’s Encyclopedia.

Thompson, J (1990, November). Ponce de Leon. Stamps, pp 245-246.