Fraternities And Gang Rape

Of the 24 documented cases of alleged gang rape by college students in the past 10 years, fraternity men perpetrated 13. The problem of group sexual assault on college campuses mainly occurs in an environment where group behavior and acceptance is important to the men involved, i.e. fraternities (Bechhofer & Parrot 144). Looking at the environment surrounding this type of group one can see what causes the prevalence of this type of assault in fraternities. Why does this violence occur within these groups and how is it handled? The dynamics involved in the fraternity’s system causes a “group-think” mentality that promotes and sometimes causes group sexual assault. This group influence, along with the fraternity’s selection of men and their adherence to traditional sex role stereotypes reinforces myths of acceptable behavior in men and women and how these play a role concerning consequences.
Specific dynamics come into play when discussing how groups of people who might not otherwise act individually take part in sexual assaults with other members of their group. The theory of diffusion of responsibility suggests that in situations where the presence of others acting in a similar fashion diminishes the feeling of responsibility any individual feels for the harmful consequences of his or her own behavior” (Bechhofer & Parrot ed. 147-148). With respect to fraternities, the brother feels less like his own self and more like he is just participating in something that all his “brothers” are doing as well. They share the blame. A fraternity brother begins to think of the activity as something his “brothers” are doing and joins in under the influence of a shared activity. Other things may play into the idea that the assailant is not acting alone and is not solely responsible for his actions.

Deindividuation is a theory of group behavior that refers to a state of loss of self-awareness, including awareness of one’s beliefs, attitudes, and self-standards. This promotes group spirit. In fraternities, Alcohol is used to get group consensus by allowing an escape from one’s self-consciousness. Group loyalty will also cause people in a group to deindividualize by taking on the group’s identity (Bechhofer ; Parrot 148).

In an environment such as a fraternity where incoming pledges are looking to be accepted by a group of men who have the power to reject them, they are greatly influenced by the behavior of the group. Modeling can become a factor in making sexual assault seen as something that is acceptable. Not only does it give the information to the member, it at times shows them how it is done. This can be very influential to incoming members who see fraternities as social leaders and may not question their behavior. Along with these dynamics of group behavior, there are significant attitudes present in the fraternity environment that breeds sexual violence.

Sex-roles play an important part in fraternities and how and what is expected from women and men. Peggy Reeves Sanday, suggests that there are Rape-free and Rape prone societies, and fraternities fit the mark for attitudes in a Rape-prone environment. Sanday states that,
A rape-prone society is one in which the incidence of rape is reported by observers to be high, or rape is excused a ceremonial expression of masculinity, or rape is an act by which men are allowed to punish or threaten women.

(Sanday, VIOLENCE p. 193)
Fraternities can be an example of this type of environment. Sanday also suggests that these men fall into the Western cultural myth that man is an animal that evolved with his dominance over women. These men see themselves as being powerful and privileged in their situation as a brother, as well as in being a man in general. Playing out this traditional misogynistic view rationalizes a “boys will be boys” attitude that, as will be looked at later, affects how this behavior is seen by the community (Sanday 193). The types of men selected to become members of the fraternities reinforce the behaviors and ideas of “powerful” “macho” men and perpetuate the cycle of behavior.
Fraternities attract a certain type of male, more insecure than average: men whose psychological and social bonds to parents, especially their mothers, have not yet been broken (Hirsch 53). These insecure men tend to find the fraternity life attractive, it allows them to find an identity within the group. Initiation rituals for pledges that wish to join the fraternity back up the misogynistic and unequal views on the masculine and feminine. Sanday states that:
The ritual produces anxiety by representing the feminine to the pledge as both dirty and as part of his subjectivity. The ritual then resolves the anxiety by cleansing the pledge of his supposed feminine identification and promising him a lifelong position in a purified male social order. (Sanday 171)
These rituals often involve the violent abuse of pledges, therefor showing them that this type of violence against those who are being submissive (pledges), is an integral part of their bonding.

Out of this feeling of superiority and power that the members get from being in their privileged male status, a sexual double arises. Men are predators who are rewarded for their conquests; women on the other hand are punished either way. One Greek man stated that, “Women who sleep around are sluts and get bad reputations; men who do are champions and get a pat on the back from their brothers.” Greek men have also stated that they feel pressure to disrespect women when they are in the group (Boswell 141). Boswell states that fraternity men usually treat the girlfriends of members with more respect (138). This can be linked to the fact that they are already possessed by a man, whereas the girls with out boyfriends must be looking for a man. The idea that men must act out their sexual urges and women should remain passive and naive about sex is accepted and can be used against an assaulted victim if it goes to trial.

The physical make up of the men chosen to join fraternities is a large part of the attitude of traditional roles and beliefs about sexuality. Fraternities most often look for “big guys,” macho men who posses no feminine qualities. Men who can hold their liquor and play sports are used to boost the image of the fraternity as well as to help reinforce their heterosexuality. This powerful male role counters the belief of what type of roles women are expected to play, and more importantly what type of women do these fraternity men prefer concerning sexual assault.

The most common age for victims of sexual assault is between the ages of 20-24; the next group being 16-19. This obviously includes mostly college age students. In general fraternities want women at their parties. The rules usually are men pay and women get in free. There is a sort of symbolic gesture to the term “women free” at these parties. It might just be implying that women in fact must pay for their beer with sex (Sanday 29).
Fraternity men seek out a certain type of girl for sex or sometimes in cases of group sexual assault. She is usually scantly dressed or wearing a lot of makeup. A student stated that, “The whole idea is that they come cheap. I don’t ever need to see them again unless I want to.” (Sanday 30) They see women who are wearing a lot of makeup and tight clothes as “looking to get fucked.” The pursuit of these types of women for “flings” has been described as; “Part of it is just the thrill of getting an easy lay. A lot of my friends do it just for fun” (Sanday 31). These men see these types of girls as wanting sex as well as provoking it by wearing certain clothes. They feel like they are providing a service. “They come to our parties because they want to fool around with frat men, and we’re happy to oblige.” (Sanday 30) Another fraternity member stated that,
There are girls that you know will fuck, then some you have to put some effort into itYou have to buy them drinks or find out if she’s drunk enough (Martin & Hummer 122)
The attitude that this is why women come to their parties is another belief that is added on to the already dangerous environment that is present in fraternity life. The reward and praise that is given to members who have sexual conquests of women can be seen in certain instances of gang rape.

In one gang rape case, Peggy Reeves Sanday showed some of the attitudes that were shown after the rape and before charges were made. A student was taken upstairs and while in a semiconscious state was raped by up to six men. Afterwards a sheet was pinned to the bulletin board of the fraternity, part of the sheet contained statements about an “express”, an obvious connection to the word “train” which is a common word for a gang bang. The sheet stated:
A prospective leader for our sisters program spent some time interviewing several brothers this past Thursday and Friday. Possible names for the little sisters include name of fraternity “little wenches” and “The name of frat express. (66)
Also on one of their “leadership and service” sheets one of the brothers penciled in “We serviced victims name” (Sanday 68). When a writer interviewed the members during after the trial, the writer, Bowden, concluded that: “Male bonding was the most important aspect of allIt had something to do with belonging to the fraternity and, deeper than that, with what fraternity’ meant, what it meant to belong”(21).

The physical environment inside of the fraternities can also play a role in the control and power that the men in these groups seek. The parties at fraternities are not only in their house, which consists of all men, but the music, lights, and alcohol are all controlled by them too. At most parties the music is played too loud for conversation, and in some instances there are rooms just for people to make out in. The alcohol that is supplied at these parties is made strong and is usually referred to as a special punch for the women. The fact that they control the downstairs environment, after encouraging women to drink, their bedrooms are conveniently upstairs.
On many occasions this is where the assaults take place. A girl is lead upstairs under the assumption that she is going to a bed so that she can sleep it off. She is then assaulted by the members when she is too drunk to consent or sometimes passed out. In addition, on many occasions while a member is having sex with a girl he will purposefully leave his door open so that other members can watch. This shows how the act has nothing to do with sexual impulse or need but with a need to prove to the others that he is a man; it has to do with brotherhood, not sexual needs.
The fact that these gang rapes, as well as instances where other members watch another member have sex, all include a group, the idea of loyalty comes up. Martin and Hummer suggest that loyalty is a fraternity’s preoccupation. Members are reminded constantly to be loyal to the fraternity and to their brothers. They further state that protection of the fraternity often takes precedence over what is ethically or legally correct. In one gang rape case, except for one brother, a rapist that turned states evidence, the entire remaining fraternity membership was accused of lying to protect the fraternity. The members failed to cooperate with police and prosecutors investigating the case (121). Although fraternity members individually know right from wrong, the fraternity norms the emphasize loyalty, group protection and secrecy often overrides these notions.
The act of group sexual assault by fraternity men can be looked at as an incorporation of all of the group attitudes present within the fraternity environment. The pressure that is placed on the “macho” male and a preoccupation with heterosexuality may lead these men toward group assault as a motive to prove their heterosexuality to the other members of their frat.

Many rituals in fraternities are done for the “bond” of the brothers, yet certain behaviors are extreme to separate any confusion of their heterosexuality, especially when it is a bunch of men living together. In party sexual activities, Sanday suggests that fraternity brothers split lust from love. She states that:
Such a split is necessary for homophobic men living in groups structured by ties demanding mutual loyalty. These men must be careful not to act out sexual feelings for a loved brother lest it compromise their status as privileged, heterosexual males, nor can they show loyalty or love for a party woman lest this weaken the fraternal bond. (Sanday 37)
The idea of fraternal bond as a male power transfers the act of gang rape not into a masculine claiming of power and dominance of women. Women being seen as those who are weak and need to be dominated. This motivation as well as the overall idea that women “want it” is underline in our culture and system and have made it difficult for the prosecution of gang rapes. Many often lead to victim blaming and an idea that fraternity men have a sort of status in society, mostly coming from middle to upper class homes.
The act of victim blaming comes up with gang rape, as well as many other rape cases. The fraternity gang rape cases are particularly hard due to a lack of concern from the University Officials. Usually no action is taken so that the University can look good. The University’s actions were so mild in one rape case that the faculty put together a committee to investigate the proceedings. They learned that the mild sanctions placed on the six fraternity members who raped a student included, writing assignments, discussions, and community service. This was supposed to make the respondents understand why their actions were wrong and to foster their development as mature and responsible adults’ (Sanday 77). The mild punishment that was given to these men can be seen in many other instances of rape trials, where the women ends up on trial instead of the man or men who raped her.

In an Michigan State University rape in 1984 where seven college students were tried for 3rd degree sexual assault of a 17-year-old MSU student in a dormitory. Five defense attorneys each displayed the victims jeans and football jersey before the court and asked why she wasn’t wearing a bra when she went to the party (Bechhofer & Parrot ed. 140).
As Sanday states, “By blaming women for provoking male sexual aggression, women are controlled through the agency of fear. This causes an aggressive attitudes in men and a passive, fearful attitude in women” (89). This then keeps the gender hierarchy in check.

The problem of gang rape in fraternities around the country is one that needs to be seen through the workings of an intricate system of values and beliefs. The facts that these men live in confined quarters together and have certain beliefs of power, privilege, and loyalty to their brothers, causes attitudes of misogyny and violent behavior toward women. The dynamics of group behavior as well as the environment that is created by many people with these beliefs living together and choosing new members, perpetuates this cycle of violence.
Bibliography
Bechhofer, Laurie and Andrea Parrot ed. Acquaintance Rape: The Hidden Crime. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 1991.


Boeringer, Scott B. Influences of fraternity membership, athletics and male living arrangements of sexual aggression. VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, V.2, NO.2, JUNE, pp. 134-147; 1996. ISSN: 1077-8012
Boswell, A. Ayres; Spade, Joan Z. Fraternities and collegiate rape culture: Why are some fraternities more dangerous places for women? GENDER & SOCIETY, V.10, NO.2, APRIL, pp. 133-147 1996. ISSN: 0891-2432
Cook, Sarah L. Acceptance and expectation of sexual aggression in college students. PSYCHOLOGY OF WOMEN QUARTERLY, V.19, NO.2, JUNE, pp. 181-194; 1995 ISSN: 0361-6843
Hirsch, Kathleen. Fraternities of fearGang rape, male bonding, and the silencing of women. Ms.; Vol. 1; pp. 52-6; S-O 1990.


Hummer, Robert A. and Patricia Yancey Martin. “Fraternities and Rape on Campus.” Violence Against Women the Bloody Footprints. Ed. Pauline B. Bart and Eileen Geil Moran. California: SAGE Publications, Inc., 1993. 114-129.


Koss, Mary P.; Cleveland III, Hobart H. Commentary: Athletic participation, fraternity membership, anddate rape: The question remains–self-selection or different causal processes? VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN,V.2, NO.2, JUNE, pp. 180-190; 1996. ISSN: 1077-8012
Sanday, Peggy Reeves. Fraternity gang rape: sex, brotherhood, and privilege on campus. New York: NewYork University Press, c1990.


Sanday, Peggy Reeves Commentary: Rape-prone versus rape-free campus cultures. VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, V.2, NO.2, JUNE, pp. 191-208; 1996. ISSN 1077-8012
Schwartz, Martin D.; Nogrady, Carol A. Fraternity membership, rape myths, and sexual aggression on a college campus. VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, V.2, NO.2, JUNE, pp. 148-162; 1996. ISSN: 1077-8012

Overview And Analysis Of The Crusades

Overview and Analysis of the Crusades
The Crusades were military expeditions planned and carried out by western
European Christians. The crusades started around 1095. The purpose of these
crusades was to overtake and gain control of the Holy Land from the Muslims. The
Holy Land was Jerusalem and the Christians believed that gaining control of it
was their fate. The pope would gather the people together and incite them. The
origin of the crusades was a result of the expanding Turks in the middle east.

These Turkish forces invaded Byzantium, a Christian empire. The crusaders were a
militia, sent out to recover what they thought was theirs.


The first crusade was essentially started by Pope Urban II. On November 27, 1095,
he gathered his followers outside the French city of Clermont-Ferrand. He
preached to these people and told them that action needed to be taken. In
response, the people cheered and planned their attack. Urban II brought together
all of the bishops and urged them to talk to their friends and fellow villagers
and to encourage them to participate in the crusades. Small groups started to
form and each group would be self- directing. All the groups planned their own
ways to the Constantinople, where they would meet and regroup. They would attack
the Turkish forces in Constantinople and hope to regain control of the city.


The large Christian armies talked to Alexius I Comnenus, the Byzantium emperor,
and agreed to return any of his old land that was recaptured. The armies were
skeptical of this demand but agreed anyway. The first attack by the crusaders
was on Anatolian, the Turkish capital. Meanwhile the Byzantians were also trying
to recapture Anatolian, and later that year, the city surrendered to the
Byzantians instead of the crusaders. The Byzantians were using the crusaders as
pawns to achieve their own goals. The crusaders again met and crushed the
Turkish army. The crusaders scored a great victory and boosted the troops’ moral.

The crusaders captured Antioch and also held off relief forces sent to help the
Turks. The crusaders then moved on to their main goal-Jerusalem!
The city was under Egyptian control and was heavily guarded. The crusaders set
up siege machines and called for reinforcements, finally forcing the Egyptians
to surrender. Everyone in the city was massacred in the belief that the blood of
the former holders purified it. The crusaders kept control of the city for the
next generation or so and brought in people to inhabit the Holy Land. Slowly the
Muslim forces started to rebuild and soon came back to take the Holy Land.


After the defeat of the Egyptians in Jerusalem, the crusaders started to
colonize. The Latin colonists set up four states: Tripoli, which was on the
Syrian coast, Antioch, centered near the Orontes Valley, Edessa, a far east
state which held most of the Christians, and the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, the
most powerful and centered between the other three states. The crusaders’
strategy during the first crusade was to isolate the Muslims and Egyptians, and
to cut off any supplies or reinforcements from strengthening their status. Once
the original generation of crusaders died, their children were not as determined.

They forgot about the Muslims that had escaped, and because of that, the Muslims
had a new leader and were regaining power. Under their leader, Imad ad-Din, the
Muslims regrouped and planned their attack against the colonies. After the
passing of Imad ad-Din, a new radical leader emerged-Zangi. Zangi led his troops
to a victory against the crusaders and their colonies by capturing the state of
Edessa. The Muslims destroyed the Christians churches, buildings, and killed the
crusaders. Back home, the Pope saw what was happening and declared a second
crusade to recapture the territory that had been lost. King Louis VII, from
France, set out to meet Conrad III army. The Holy Roman Emperor, Conrad III, set
out from Germany and soon met up with Louis’ men. With their armies, they left
from their homeland to meet in Jerusalem. Conrad’s army began their voyage, only
to be ambushed. Afterwards, their supplies and cavalry were drastically depleted.

The better half of the French army reached Jerusalem and met up with the small
remains of the Germans and the old crusaders. Together they ventured to Damascus,
but failed to take the city and were badly defeated. The French army and king
had had enough and returned home. The small remnants of the Germans stayed with
the colonies, along with the old crusaders. Slowly but surely, the states the
crusaders had set up were systematically being destroyed. The failure of the
second crusade brought on the third crusade.


The Muslims had named a new leader, Nur ad-Din, who regrouped the Muslims and
motivated them to take back what believed was theirs. Their leader died a few
years later, and was succeeded by their military leader, Saladin. In 1187,
Saladin took his now revived and recuperated army to recapture Jerusalem. In
July, he crushed the crusaders front line army in Galilee. Saladin then led his
troops throughout the area of Jerusalem and finally took Jerusalem in early
October. This led to Pope Gregory VIII starting a third crusade. The people in
the west knew that their time had come to defeat the Muslims once and for all.

Included in the ranks of men going on the crusade were Fredick I, the Roman
emperor; Philip II, the French king; and Richard I, of England. These forces
were thought to be one of the most powerful armies assembled during the middle
ages. Again, this crusade suffered misfortune. On his journey to Jerusalem, the
Roman emperor died, and his army accompanied the body back home for burial. Even
with the size of Richard’s and Frederick’s remaining armies, they were not able
to recapture Jerusalem. When the armies left Jerusalem and its surrounding areas
to return home, they accomplished none of their goals.


Since none of the following crusades were successful or even important, not much
is known about them. The later crusades also provided almost nothing for the
Christians therefore much time and money was wasted on them.


I have several thoughts on the crusades. The first crusade was the most
memorable. It was the most successful one, with a minimal amount of casualties.

Its execution reflected well on the leaders. The Muslims and Turks were taken by
surprise. They did not expect the Christians to bring such a force or such to
Jerusalem. Later crusades were anticipated by the Muslims and very predictable.

After the Muslims won control, the Christians initiated a new crusade within 10
years or so, with the full force unable to reach Jerusalem. I think the people
were more pleased with the first crusade not only because of the outcome but
because it was a new idea to the Christian faith. Christian philosophy did not
espouse, “if there is something you want, take it forcefully.” The crusades also
offered the Christians a chance to vent their anger towards Jerusalem’s
possessors. It established a routine and thereby structure for their lives.

Towards the end of the second or the third crusade, the common folk were
becoming angry with the Pope and kings for their lack of results. Monies went
into the preparation of the crusades with minimal return. The first crusade set
a great example for the others, yet the next crusades didn’t follow the same
path. The later crusades lacked organization. No one wanted to provide
leadership due to the uncertain outcome. Leadership demonstrated in later years
was from Stephen and Nicholas in the Children’s Crusade, however unfortunately
young children were used in combat. This was a reflection of the moral character
or lack of it, in their leaders and subsequently contributed to their failure.

Ernest Hemingway

Ernest Hemingway
Chris Ivie American Literature Dr. Breeden 10/2/96
Many of Ernest Hemingway’s books have had different meaning and all
could be interpreted in different way, but there has never been so much written
about his other stories. Well the Old Man and the Sea had more written about it
than any of his other novels and there have never been so many different types
of interpretations about his other novels. The Old Man and the Sea is a book in
which can be interpreted in many different ways. Here you will read what many
critics have composed about the story of a great writer, Ernest Hemingway.

Many of the critics have the same outlook on the works of Hemingway.

Hemingway’s work The Old man and the Sea can be looked at in many different
perspectives. All the critics believed that his styling of writing was very
defined.


In 1944 Ernest Hemingway went to Havana, Cuba and it was there he wrote
a letter to Maxwell Perkins which states he has a idea on a new novel called
The Old Man and the Sea ( Nelson and Jones 139). Hemingway first got his idea
for The Old Man and the Sea from the stories that he had heard in the small
fish cities in Cuba by a man named Carlos Gutierrez. He had known of this man
for about twenty years and the stories of the fighting marlins. It was then
that he imagined that man under the two circumstances and came up with the idea.

After about twenty years of pondering on the story , he decided that he would
start on the novel of The Old Man and the Sea. The story The Old Man and the
Sea is about a old man named Santiago who has to over come the great forces of
nature. Things seem to always go wrong for him because originally he started
out going to fish for some dinner, then he caught the biggest marlin ever and
it pulled him out in the bay of Cuba even more then he was. After he was pulled
out, he hurt his hands and couldn’t risk going to sleep because of the risk of
sharks. When the sharks finally attacked he lost the marlin which had become a
great part of him because he knew that no one would believe him when he told
them the size of the marlin. This has to be one of the most memorable fights in
a novel that I have ever seen, but I think that the way he put the novel
together was just as good as that of the fight.


When he put them together it was then that he relized that what he was
actually writing about was a struggle of man vs. nature. He liked the idea of
man vs. nature and decided to use it in the struggle scene with the marlin.

Magill wrote,” the book can be seen as a fable of the unconquerable spirit of
man, a creature capable of snatching spiritual victories from the
circumstances of disaster and material defeat” (Magill 4325). Also it is
said,” the conflict is of the strength of a ordinary man and the power of
nature”(Magill 4325). I feel that Santiago plays a large role in the novel by
being able not to give in and prove to the element of nature that he would over
come them in the long run.


Magill wrote,” The Old Man and the Sea is a direct descendant of Moby
Dick”(Magill 4326). He feels that the struggle between Santiago and the
marlin is very much like that of the whale and the captain in Moby Dick. The
similarities between The Old Man and the Sea and Moby Dick are extremely
noticeable after reading both of the stories back to back, but there are
differences in the story line. The main difference is that Santiago never comes
out with anything unlike the captain in Moby Dick. Santiago was left with just
a broken boat, a bad fishing pole, and the misery of defeat.


The story could also be interpreted as being religious because of the
struggle that Santiago was put though. Also it is felt by some people to be
religious because of the way he only cut his palms( from the rope), his feet(
on the front of the boat) and his head(when the bow hit him in the head). It is
often portrayed as that of Jesus on the cross. I don’t know if I really agree
with this interpretation of it being religious. The reason I don’t agree with
this is because if everytime someone got cut on the hands and feet in a movie
or book then I guess that they too resemble that of Jesus on the cross.


This story has many different interpretations to it, but would the
interpretations be if the story contained everyone from the village in it and
sowed how the were raised, born, educated, and bore children. This story could
have been well over a thousand pages if the above were included (Plimpton 125).

The big question that I ask is though, if all the above were included in the
novel, how different do you think that the interpretation would be? I feel
that the interpretations would be so very different because the whole story be
circled around that of the battle between Santiago and the marlin. Also, I
believe that the religious interpretations would be not as strong because of
dealing more with the life of the city people and that of Santiago.


Hemingway is a writer who creates things out of his head. If he wasn’t a
genius then how come did he win a Pulitzer Pride for the story The Old Man and
the Sea Hemingway states,” I knew two or three things about the situation, but
I didn’t know the story” ” I didn’t even know if that big fish was going to
bite for the old man when it started smelling around the bait. I had to write on
inventing out of knowledge. You reject everything that is not or can’t be
completely true.”(Bruccoli 179) I think that Hemingway is a genius for writing
this novel because in my point of view it shows the battle between human and
nature and that really caught my attention rereading this novel for the third
time. I also caught the moral of the story in my point of view, and that is
not everything good that you have is always going to be there. To me that means
alot because that moral also refers alot about your family as well as friends.


Hemingway is looked upon as one of the greatest writers to ever set foot
on this earth in the twentieth century. He is a writer who is know for leaving
very little left unsaid or leave you wondering, for example, what’s going to
happen, is he gonna die or not. As you could see in this novel he got to the
point in a direct manner without leaving anything unsaid and he definitely
didn’t leave you thinking about if Santiago was going to live or not.


Many people do not like the writings of Ernest Hemingway because they
feel most everything that he writes about is unhappy or make believe. Fredrick
Busch said at one point in time ,” He didn’t want to read that of which was
unhappy or make believe” referring to Hemingway’s work (Bryfonski 130). Many
have said to believe that The Old Man and the Sea was written about the life
of Ernest Hemingway, which in reality it was written about a Cuban by the name
of Carlos Gutierrez. However some of the parts in this story do relate to
things Hemingway has experienced.


In conclusion, The Old Man and the Sea can be interpreted in many
different forms, but I think it isn’t how you interpret it. Don’t get me wrong
some people like to read to see how many ways you can interpret it but , you
should read a novel to learn from others mistakes and also for the pleasure of
expanding you knowledge American and English literature. I could name many
different books in which I have read that have actually left a impact on my
life in some sort or another.


Bibliographies
Bruccoli, Matthew J. Conversations with Ernest Hemingway.

Mississippi: UP Mississippi, 1986
Bryfonski, Dedria. Contemporary Authors. Michigan: Bok Towers,1984
Magill,Frank M. Masterplots. 8 vols., New Jersey: Salem Press,1976
Nelson, Gerald B., and Glory Jones.

Hemingway: Life and Works. New York: Facts on File
Publications,1984
Wagner, Linda W. Ernest Hemingway, Five Decades of Criticism .

Michigan: Michigan State UP, 1974
Wagner, Linda W. Ernest Hemingway, Six Decades of Criticism.

Michigan: Michigan State UP, 1982

The Tempest Is A Play About The Power And Dangers

Of Creativity. DiscuThe Tempest is a play about the power and dangers of creativity. Discuss.


“From beginning to end the play-write gives prominence to the problems of dominion, freedom, political failure and of repetition.”
Like Russ Mc Donald I also believe that Shakespeare devoted his last comedy largely to the exploration of the shapes and effects that possession and the search for power can have on persons. The Tempest’s central character, Prospero, is also crucial to this interpretation. His unique magical gifts give him undefeatable power to wreak vengeance on his enemies. It is a position fraught with dangers both for him and for others. But he is not the only veichel. Entwined with this wizard’s inventive qualities are questions over what can only be called, by a modern reader as the theme of colonialism in the play which pervades the minds of all the ‘civilised’ Italians; Caliban and Miranda are the two primary victims of this patriarchal society. One must also make a note of the motif of usurpation in the play and recognise its interesting implications.

Shakespeare initiates a mood of danger and imagination from the off, as the play begins with the great tempest which threatens to bring the sailors to their doom. The tempest we also find out was the intention of Prospero rather than the will of nature thus immediately establishing Prospero as a character with unusual powers but with severe possibilities, this is highlighted by the juxtaposition of the pleading Miranda who says..
This is not the only time in the play where she plays this role, when Ferdinand falls in love with Miranda Prospero treats him harshly and Miranda’s leaps to his defence while telling Ferdinand ..

Her we see the danger that Propero’s magic combined with his nature can prove too much for some. But there is more danger ahead as we shall see.

The tempest also highlights Propero’s dual role in the action, both as man and as God. God called the tempest as they believe the other strange events that befall them later such as ..
But to the inhabitants of the island (Miranda, Arial, and Caliban) is an ordinary man. Prospero uses this position to great effect i.e. to regain his dukedom, which was usurped by the travellers long ago.

Words
/ Pages : 374 / 24

American Theatre

Soon after the American Revolution, Americans began their expansion to the west.


It was our Manifest Destiny to tame the wilds of the west and expand our nation
from coast to coast. Families from all over would load up their belongings and
travel to the newly purchased lands. People from New York, Philadelphia, Boston
and all parts of the new nation brought with them their language, culture and
belief systems. Along with this they also brought the theater. It was not long
after people would begin to live in an area that the theater would take root.


The progress of the theater in the United States can be traced along the same
routes as the settlement of the west. Beginning on the east coast with early
colonies the theater was carried with our ancestors to their new homes in the
west. From St. Louise to Kansas City, from Kansas City to California and all
parts in between. Horace Greeley said “Go west young man” and the
theater followed. In 1492 Christopher Columbus left Azones on a trip to discover
a western sea route to the Orient. Seventy days later Columbus made land fall on
what he thought was an outlying portion of Asia. Columbus would go to his death
believing he had landed in Asia, he was wrong. Although he did open up a new
world for Europeans to expand their culture into.(Billington 15) Thought many
early attempts where made to settle this new land. Most ended in disaster. In
1620 however, 128 years after Columbus made his brave but mistaken discovery of
the new world, the pilgrims set out to make a permanent settlement in America.


They put a shore in what is now called Massachusetts and formed a thriving, self
governed colony.(Billington 57) 10 years later, John Wintrope brings 1000
colonist and founds the city of Boston. Wintropes British settlement had not
been in the new world long, in fact less than a year, when they discovered that
the Dutch had formed their own nearby settlement. The Dutch called their town
New Amsterdam. This caused immediate competition and rivalry between the
settlements.(Billington 60) After a war with the Dutch the city of New Amsterdam
came into the possession of the British Empire and King Charles the Second. King
Charles had newly been restored to the throne of England after a long forced
vacation on the mainland of Europe. As a reward to those who supported his
return, he annexed New Amsterdam and renamed it New York and gave large portions
of it to his most loyal supporters.(Billington 67) In the ensuing years many
English colonist came to the new world setting up towns and cities all along the
Atlantic coast line. It is in these towns and cities that we see European
culture, especially English culture, being planted in the new world. With this
new culture being brought to this new and untamed land it is natural that the
forms of entertainment would also not be far behind. The lands of the new world
where now fertile for the seed of the theater. In 1716 we have records of a
theater being built in Willamsburg Virginia. This is probable the first theater
built in the Americas. While there where probable plays and some small
theatrical productions being done earlier, this is our first ever record of a
building being built for this specific purpose.(Hornblow) We know that in New
York in 1752, the Hallams performed the Merchant of Venice. We also know that
the Hallams used a theater that was build for use by Murray and Kean who had a
troupe who had performed the same play along with Richard the III many years
earlier. (Hornblow) So theater came early to the Americas but was contained to
the coastal areas much like the colonies where. It would take the formation of a
new country and an expansion of the boarders of this new country to help theater
on its western trek across the great expanses of North America. Caused by what
they believed was an erosions of their natural rights and being governed with
out representation The colonies in America decided to take a bold move and break
their ties with their English masters. This of course was not well received by
the King of England and what is known as the American Revolution ensued. In 1775
in Lexington and Concord fighting broke out between American Colonist and
English Troops. On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress signed a
document that had been penned by Thomas Jefferson. The document was a
Declaration of Independence. While the matter was by no means decided and a long
war followed, for all practical purposes the United States Of America was
born.(McKay 696) In an effort to expand the borders of the United States and to
help get European interest off the continent. Thomas Jefferson, now president of
the United States purchases from France a vast area called Louisiana. So on
April 30th, 1803 the territory of the fledgling country of the United States was
more than doubled. In this territory there where already established cities and
populations. Cities like New Orleans and St. Louise had long been active trading
areas for the French and Spanish governments.(Billington 244) These areas
quickly became attractive for new migrations of the Americans. Although both
cities spoke very little English. The rapid movement of Americans into them
caused a need for English spoken entertainment. In New Orleans there where
French speaking theaters as early as 1809 but there had never been any English
language plays performed. A man named Noah Ludlow with the help of some actors
from the Turner company decided to go to New Orleans and perform. They had been
told that there was a large English speaking population there now and they where
in need to spend their money on English speaking plays. This is all that Ludlow
needed. Although some of his partners protested and left the troupe, Ludlow with
many others departed from Nashville on Oct. 20th 1917. (Hornblow) They traveled
down the Ohio river to the Mississippi They arrived in Natches some days later
and upon the insistence of the local movers and shakers performed one of their
plays. “The Honeymoon” was the first play to ever be performed in
Natches. The troupe stayed for a few days but then continued their travels to
New Orleans. On Dec. 24th 1817 Ludlow and his trouped opened their theater in
New Orleans with the plays “The Honeymoon” and a farce called
“The Hotel, or a servant with two masters”. The theater was called the
St. Philip because it was on St. Phillips St. The venture was a huge success
before Ludlow decided to go back to Nashville for other endeavors. (Hornblow) It
is only fitting that the man who brought theater to the Louisiana territory be
the one who brings it to St. Louis. Noah Ludlow decided that the small city of
St. Louis was ripe for his theater troupe. With a population of some 4000 St.


Louis had never seen a professional performance of a play. There where some
amateurs performing in the area and in their theater is where ludlow decided to
set up. (Hornblow) On Nov 20th 1819, Ludlow and his troupe boarded a keel boat
in Nashville and started on his journey to St. Louis. This journey was much more
difficult than the one to New Orleans for part of the trip was up current on the
Mississippi. They had to travel by a procedure called Cordelling. This entailed
men with ropes pulling the boats up the river. Finally arriving in St. Louse
Ludlows troupe performed in mid December 1819. They once again performed the
play “The Honeymoon”. (Hornblow) Theater had now expanded to the
western shores of the Mississippi. The United States would soon conquer from
coast to coast in North American. Expanding from the Mississippi to the coast in
California. As the Mormons expanded into the great Salt lake area of Utah and
the Mexican War would add vast new land, including California into the United
States the theater would not be far behind On may 16, 1846 the United States
declared war on Mexico. Caused partially because of United States annexation of
Texas, disagreements on borders and President Polks desire to expand the United
States territory.(Clark) While preparations for war where ensuing in Texas, Col.


Stephen Kearney was on his way west to take New Mexico and California. On Jan.


10th 1847, California was conquered. The treaty of Guadeloupe-Hidalgo was signed
on Feb 2, 1848 after the United States had defeated the Mexican troops and
captured the Mexican capital of Mexico City. This treaty set the new borders
along the Rio Grande river and gave to the United States New Mexico and
California. With these new accusations the west was now ready for its infusion
of the theater.(Billington 586) On July 24th, 1847, A group of Mormons lead by
Brigham Young founded the city of Salt Lake in the territory of Utah.(Billington
541) The Mormon had always been supporters of the theater and they carried their
love of the theater with them west. Joseph Smith encouraged the formation of a
Theatrical company long before their exodus to the west. (Hornblow) Soon after
settling in their new homes Salt Lake City plays where being performed. In an
area called the Bowery the Mormons would congregate to watch all sorts of
productions. It was here in 1850 that the Salt Lake Theater Stock Company was
created. Their first play was “The Dead Shot” In 1862 Brigham young
built the Salt Lake Theater. (Hornblow) While this was going on in Salt Lake
City American where rushing to California to cash in on the gold rush. In 1849
the famous gold rush began in California. (Clark) As American headed west to the
shores of the Pacific ocean theater followed. On Jan 1850 in Washington Hall, a
building in San Francisco. The first professional play was performed in
California. A play by Sheridan Knowles called “The Wife” played to a
packed house. By 1851 there where at least 3 professional theaters operating in
San Francisco.(Hornblow) Manifest Destiny, this became the call of many
Americans as the United States expanded westward. We got on boats, filled our
wagons and populated North America from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Times where
hard for these early settlers but in it all they found time for entertainment.


The theater has been there from the beginning to entertain, educate and make us
think. Not only has the theater expanded across the land it has expanded across
time. While some would argue it was a natural expansion of the theater to the
camera and then to the television. Our lives are totally entwined in the
theatrical arts. So when Horace Greeley said “Go west young man” we
did and we took the theater with us.


Bibliography
Billington, Ray Allen. “Westward Expansion; A history of the American
Frontier.” New York: Macmillan, 1967 Clark, Dan Elbert. “The West in
American History” New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1937 Horblow,
Arthur. “A history of the Theatre in America from its Beginnings to the
Present Time.” New York: B. Bloom, 1965 c1919 McKay, Hill, Buckler. “A
history of Western Society 5th Edition” Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company
1995

How Moods Are Affected By The Sun

How Moods Are Affected By The Sun
Jared Sousa
1/20/96
Descriptive Research
Thesis: The amount of sun people receive affects their mood.


A young woman lies asleep on a cold, overcast winter morning. At 4 A.M., a
faint incandescence radiates from a light bulb placed near her bed. The light
gradually gains intensity and covers until 6 A.M., when the woman awakes. She
had just experienced a simulated dawn of a new day. After being treated with
this for several days, the woman’s annual winter depression slowly goes away.

Does this mean that the less sun you get the worse you feel, or perhaps the
more you get the better your mood? It is very possible that you may feel this
way as millions of people worldwide have experienced it first-hand. This
phenomena is still sort of a mystery as many researchers don’t completely
understand why this happens. “It may be that certain individuals have inherited
vulnerability that causes them to develop depression in the absence of exposure
to sufficient environmental light”1. Frederick A. Cook, the arctic explorer,
provided a vivid description of the effects of prolonged darkness on the human
psyche: “The curtain of blackness which has overfallen the outer world has also
descended upon the inner world of our souls,” Cook wrote in his journal on May
16, 1898, “Around our tables . . . . men are sitting about sad and dejected
lost in dreams of melancholy. For brief moments some try to break the spell by
jokes, told perhaps for the 50th time. Others grind out a cheerful philosophy;
but all efforts to infuse bright hopes fail.”2 Some believe that light affects
the body’s ability to make serotonin, a neurotransmitter that helps induce
feelings of calm and well being. The eye’s sensitivity may also play a part in
sun/mood relations. A study was done to a group of people in the winter and
summer. In the winter the many individuals experienced much more difficulty
seeing dim light after sitting in the dark for a while.3 Another study done in
Vancouver shows that electrical activity in the retinas when a bright light is
shone, is significantly less in winter4.


As much as 5% of Americans suffer from Seasonal Affective disorder, also known
as SAD5. SAD is an illness in which the sufferers feel depressed, feel
lethargic, and they overeat . There is no known cause for this widespread
illness. Many researchers of SAD are speculating on the idea that SAD patients
might have seasonal variations in their melatonin secretions. A study of
melatonin patterns in SAD sufferers was done to determine if melatonin was a
factor in the disorder. Since mostly women are affected by SAD, researchers
used healthy women as the control. The researchers who found that the
significant difference in winter and summer pacemaking that occurred in SAD
patients also saw similar patterns in the healthy women. Other studies show
that a SAD sufferer’s eye usually does not take in as much sunlight in the
winter as a normal person, which may exaggerate the depression and other
symptoms.6 Most SAD patients treated with light therapy for a few weeks usually
lose the depression. SAD patients that tended to eat more than one portion of
sweet things (such as chocolate, cake, or ice cream) per day usually found
temporary relief from their illness.7 Swiss scientists believe that the sweet
foods seems to “trigger” the release of the same mood-altering substances that
light triggers.


Nevertheless, light — or lack thereof — can really get under our skin. For
instance, “Rapid changes in the day length greatly modify the daily cycle of
sleep and melatonin secretion,” report researchers led by psychiatrist Thomas A.

Wehr of the National Institute of Mental Health, “. . . brain mechanisms that
detect and respond to seasonal changes in day length may have been conserved in
the course of human evolution.”8 The findings with the sun’s affect on humans
matched those already observed in rats. Many of us have not yet realized what
an important factor light is in our daily life. “Light is a complex stimulus
that has been inadequately specified, given the intense clinical experimentation
of the last five years.”9Research with these results easily prove that the
sun and light really do alter our mood, and have a great influence on our lives.


Calculus

Calculus
“One of the greatest contributions to modern mathematics, science, and
engineering was the invention of calculus near the end of the 17th century,”
says The New Book of Popular Science. Without the invention of calculus, many
technological accomplishments, such as the landing on the moon, would have been
difficult.

The word “calculus” originated from the Latin word meaning pebble. This is
probably because people many years ago used pebbles to count and do arithmetic
problems.

The two people with an enormous contribution to the discovery of the
theorems of calculus were Sir Isaac Newton of England and Baron Gottfried
Wilhelm of Germany. They discovered these theorems during the 17th century
within a few years of each other.

Isaac Newton was considered one of the great physicists all time. He
applied calculus to his theories of motion and gravitational pull. He was able
to discover a function and describe mathematically the motion of all objects in
the universe.

Calculus was invented to help solve problems dealing with “changing or
varying” quantities. Calculus is considered “mathematics of change.” There are
some basic or general parts of calculus. Some of these are functions,
derivative, antiderivatives, sequences, integral functions, and multivariate
calculus.

Some believe that calculus is too hard or impossible to learn without much
memorization but if you think that calculus is all memorizing then you will not
get the object of learning calculus. People say that calculus is just the
revision or expansion of old or basic equations and I believe that also.

In economics and business there are some uses for calculus. One important
application of integral calculus in business is the evaluation of the area under
a function. This can be used in a probability model. Probability is another
uses in integral calculus for business because you could find how often
something will appear in a certain range in a certain time. A function used for
probability in uniform distribution. The function is f(x) = 1 (b – a) for a <
x >= b. Some economics uses is figuring marginal and total cost. The function
is TC = MC = TVC + FC. Another is the demand on a sales product. ex. Demand on
Beer that brings in different variables to see how the consumption of beer is.

The function is a multivariate function f(m, p, r, s) = (1.058)(m^.136)(p^-
.727)(r^.914)(s^.816) where m = aggregate real income:p = average
retail price of beer r = average retail price level of all other consumer goods
s = measure of strength of beer (how consumers like it) as you can see if
everything but r stays constant then the demand will go up.

Some terms used in calculus frequently used to learn you need to know what
they are. Derivative is the fundamental concept of calculus that is how things
change. (ex. instantaneous velocity) Functions are always used in all
applications. A function is an equation with one or more variables where only
one x value will produce only one y value is a function. Also you will need to
learn and memorize some theorems and identities to be able to expand and
breakdown equations.


THE NEW BOOK OF POPULAR SCIENCE
Calculus p.431 – 433 Brief Calculus and its Applications
Larry J. Goldstein / David C. Lay / David L. Schneider McGraw Hill Encyclopedia
of Science and Technology #3 ed. 7
A First Course in Calculus Lang, Serge Addison-Wesley Publishing Company
Calculus for Business and Economics Childress, Robert L. Prentice Hall inc.

Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey
Science

Thesis:

Although many people believe that affirmative Action is a form of racism, it is actually used to help minorities find employment in an otherwise racist world.
In the United States, equality is a recurring theme. It has flared into a fervent moral issue at crucial stages of American history: The revolutionary and Jacksonian Period, and the New Deal. In each era, the legitimacy of American society is challenged by some set of people unhappy with the degree of equality (Verba and Orren).

Following the Civil War, Congress passed a number of laws designed to put former slaves on an equal level with white people. The Fourteenth Amendment made the freedmen citizen and prohibited states from enforcing any law which took away the privliges of any citizen, depriving men of life, liberty, or property without due process of the law, or denied men equal protection of the laws. In 1875, Republican majority in Congress, aware that reconstruction would soon end, passed a civil right act to secure by law semblance of equality for Black Americans (Urofsky 19). Many white Americans really did not like the idea of equality for the Black Freedmen. Gideon Welles, who had been prevailing sentiment when he wrote in 1871: Thank God slavery is abolished, but the Negro is not, and never can be the equal of the white man. He is of an inferior race and must always remain so(Urofsky 23). The supreme court agreed and in 1883 passed the Civil Rights act which diluted much of th!
e protection of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Justice Joseph Bradely interpreted the enforcement provision of the amendment as strictly remedial; congress has the power to remedy a discriminatory state law, but could not take affirmative steps to protect blacks from other forms of prejudice (Urofsky 21). As a result of this decision, the federal government took no action to combat racism in the country until the second world war (Urofsky 22).

Because resentment continued to increase within the black communities and because of the threat of a march on Washington, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order on June 25, 1941. This order directed African Americans to be accepted into job-training programs in defense plants. The order also stated that discrimination would not be excepted by employers holding defense contracts. It also set up a fair employment practice commissions to investigate charges of racial discrimination. Harry Truman and Dwight Eisenhower continued to enforce fair employment legislation after Roosevelts policies because Congress was unwilling to do so.

In 1954, the supreme court decision Brown v. Board of Education pressured both houses of Congress and the executive office to take some positive steps on behalf of civil rights. In January 1961, John F. Kennedy took office. Almost immediately Roy Wilkins of the NAACP called for action to promote employment opportunities for African Americans. John F. Kennedy responded with executive order 10925, which created a presidential commission on equal employment opportunity; it also mandated federal contractors to take Affirmative Action to ensure that there would be no discrimination by race, creed, color or nationality. This was not the first time that the government ordered it own contractors not only to avoid discrimination, but to take positive steps to redress the effects of discrimination in society. In some cases contractors were asked to pay employees doing similar work, the same amount of pay.
Without congressional action an executive order could only last so long, and in 1963 Kennedy secured passage of the Equal Pay Act. The Equal Pay Act prohibited employers from paying women less than men for the same work. A short time later due to the assassination of kennedy Lyndon B. Johnson called for the passage of the Civil Rights Bill as a memorial to the late president kennedy. Lyndon B. Johnson skillfully guided and expanded versions of kennedys proposal through the house and senate. The Civil Rights Act was signed into law July 2, 1964. Title VII of the act banned employment discrimination based on race, color, sex, and nationality, it also created a permanent equal employment opportunity commission to enforce its provisions. The act also for the first time included obligations not to discriminate to private employees, labor unions, and governmental agencies.(Urofsky 17).

In executive order 11246, issued on September 24, 1965, Johnson require that federal contractors take affirmative action to recruit, hire, and promote more minorities. Two years later in executive order 11375 Johnson added women to the group covered by previous anti- discrimination order (Urofsky17). Each new order was a modification of the previous one. Increasing minorities and womens chances to compete in the job market.

When Richard Nixon took office in 1969, he asked Art Fletcher, the Assistant Secretary of Labor and a black man himself, to find a way to enforce the hiring provisions of Title VII in a way that it would withstand court challenge. Fletcher did, and in 1971 Nixon unveiled the Philadelphia Plan. The Philadelphia Plan made federal contractors meet specific numerical goals in hiring minorities. Each contractor was to have nine percent of its work force be made up of minorities and women.

Even with all these Executive Orders, Civil Rights Act, and Amendments passed, only a small percent of minorities held position in the job force. In recent years, in order to combat job discrimination in the employment market, the federal government has issued a series of executive orders and have established government funded firms to secure equal opportunity in the work force. Affirmative action and other executive orders were created to insert qualified minorities in the job market, but in recent years it has been used to deter job discrimination from happening. Yet societys viewpoint on Affirmative Action has been a way for the federal government to favor one class of people over another. The fact is, that in order to use Affirmative Action to favor minorities and women against white males in the workplace, jobs must first be integrated with both minorities and whites. For no one can separate apples and oranges if there are no apples!
In the case of Firefighters Local Union No. 1784 v. Stotts (1984). The Memphis fire department was found in violation of Title VII and was under court order to hire and promote more blacks to make amends for past discrimination. Later, anticipating a budget deficit, the city planned to lay off public employees with the least seniority, and that action would have mostly affected recently hired black firemen. Stotts, a black fireman challenging the proposed personnel actions, received a favorable decision from the federal court, which granted an injunction enjoining the Fire Department from strictly adhering to seniority in layoffs. As a result, the union appealed to protect its seniority plan and white union members. The Burger Court reversed the lower court by ruling that because no intentional discrimination had been proved, Title VII protects bona fida seniority systems, and it is inappropriate to deny an innocent employee the benefits of his seniority in order to pr!
ovide a remedy in a pattern of practiced discrimination suit such as this (Janosilk 1205). So from then on the court upheld that even if an individual shows that the discriminatory practice has an impact on him/her, the court noted, he/she is not automatically entitled to have a non minority employee laid off to make room for him (Janosilk 1205).

One of the most historic Affirmative Action decisions in employment in the 1970’s was United Steelworkers of America v. Weber. In this case tan on-the-job Affirmative action agreement was collectively bargained by the Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Corporation and the United Steel workers of America at a plant in Gramercy, Louisiana. There were no skilled black craftsmen at the plant, and a voluntary Affirmative Action plan was developed to avoid the possibility of litigation by black employees into the company. Even though no past discrimination by the Kaiser Company had ever been proven. Under the agreement, half the slots for in-plant craft training programs were reserved for black employees until the proportion of Blacks in the local labor force. Weber, a white denied admission to the training program, claimed that because this rule it set up a specific quota, it constituted racial discrimination in violation of Title VII. Title VII states that an employer cannot be !
required to give preferencetial treatment to any racial group because of a racial imbalance in the workforce.This case shows that even it is impossible to discriminate against white males just because a company must meet a quota.
History has shown that discrimination has and always will be a problem as long as society remains ignorant of its existence. Still many people believe that discrimination in the workplace is not as bad as the politicians and Service Commissions, such as Fair Employment Practice Community and Office of Federal Contract Compliance in the Department of Labor, make it out to be.
In Stelle v. Louisville ; Nashville Railroad, a union and an employer had agreed on a contract under which Blacks opportunities for employment as firemen had been restricted. Griggs v. Duke Power Co. Black employees of the Duke Power Company of North Carolina stated that employees needed to meet certain requirements: Employees need to have a high school diploma or and an acceptable grade on an intelligence test for both new employees and job transfers (Janosik 1205). In many cases these tests were used to weed out any Black employment opportunity, for these tests were biased and not reasonably related to the abilities or skills necessary for successful performance on the job. In McDonnell Douglas Corp. V. Green, The McDonnell Douglas Corp. withheld a position from Mr. Green while attempting to scout for someone with equal qualifications as Green (Janosik 1205).
In Hazelwood School District v. United States, the court decided that discrimination may be based on statistical evidence demonstrating an obvious imbalance in the racial composition of the faculty of a school when compared to the racial make up of the general community population (Janosik 1204). Meaning that if the community in which the school lies in, is made up of a mixture of people with different ethnic backgrounds, that there should not only be white teachers teaching , but Black and Hispanic teachers teaching as well. There are to reasons for the ruling on Hazelwood School District v. United States.One is that to prevent students from learning certain skills only a teacher of a certain ethnic background can provide is discrimination too. Students should be able to experience different kinds of cultures and languages. The second reason is that in a community mostly are made up of women and minorities, out of the many possible teachers in that community their !
should be at least a dozenteachers at a school in that district. That way the teacher understands the problems the students are facing in their communities. By having a teacher that come from the same communities as their students they will be aware of the problems facing their community and that of their students, that way they can better help theses kids, than someone that lives outside of the children The community and has no idea of the problems they are facing. In 1984 their were seventy-one women professors out of 1,112 (6.4 per cent). They were not however, evenly distributed across subjects and departments, but were concentrated in conventionally female areas. Three out of five professors of library science are women, and five out of seven professors or nursing. Women are also notable represented in education ( seven out of forty-nine professors) and social work (six out of twenty- one professors). In contrast there is only one women professor out of thir!
ty-eight in business administration and one out of 147 in engineering(Webb 538). An examination of numbers of posts lost or gained between 1980 and 1984 also reveals that areas where women are most concentrated have been cut back most significantly: numbers of post in nursing, for example, have declined across all grades while numbers of posts in engineering and business administration have stayed constant or increased.
A case study demonstrated that equal opportunity is far from a matter of following a simple programme(Webb 545). Sonia Liff was quoted as say Women and minorities fail not because they are less Abel to carry out the tasks; they are excluded because of the way that they necessary qualification are defined. The competition is structured against women and minorities because the job is perceived as requiring skills, experience and working patterns far mor likely to be found amongst white men, or indeed seen as inherently male. What should be asked of employers is not that they accept less qualified, less able women or minorities in preference to white men but that they rethink what the job requires that do not rule out competent women or minarets.
In Franks v. Bowman Transportation Co., Bowman Transportation Co. discriminated against black applicants for jobs as truck drivers within the company to more desirable position. The lower courts found in favor of the blacks in this predicament, ordering that they be given preference in the future job opening. The Burger court took the previous ruling against Bowman Transportation Co. One step further and ruled that retroactive seniority could be awarded to racial minorities who had been discriminated against in violation of Title VII (Janosik 1204). A major objective of Title VII, noted by the court majority, is to provide appropriate compensation for those injured because of discrimation in the workplace.

Even though the court ruled that awarding a minority who has been discriminated against is acceptable, it might not be so in some cases, so compenstating minorities for past discriminatory action upon them by some other company would not apply, but if a company does discrimate against someone, the person that they discriminate against is applicable for compensation.

After the mid-1970’s an increasing number of Burger Courts cases involved the widely debated issue of Affirmative Action in employment (Janosik 1210). Society must realize that Affirmative Action plans is rather a safety net to prevent discriminatory acts against non whites males than just a method of employing minorities and women into the workforcethere is substantial evidence of the countinuing veritical and horizontal occupational segregation between men, women and minorities( Webb 533).Yet many people against Affirmative Action see Affirmative Action plans and Executive orders as an advantage that is given to minorities and woment by the Federal Government and that is why they cannot see Affirmative Action plans and executive orders as safety nets for women and minorities.
Those opposed to the idea of affirmative action feel that affirmative action is actually reversed discrimination at work; but a recent study by Alfred Blumorosen, a professor at Rutgers University law school, found that only a few dozen reported cases of reverse discrimination in federal courts over the past four years, most of which were rejected by the courts. (America Online 1). These same people also feel that Affirmative Action leads to lower standards of education needed to work, this is totally untrue.Affirmative action plans are not placing people in job that they are not qualified for. The people that are given job by Affirmative Action plans have graduated from four year universities or have the Assossiates degree. No one can stay employed in a job if they do not have skills to preform their task.
To say Affirmative action acts on the basis of prejudice is not true. Affirmative Action does not display bias or has irrational hatred of a particular group, race, or religion.Affirmative action plans is just a way of helping poeple to get jobs. Republican lawmakers and presidential hopefulls are vying with eac other to stake out the strongest position for curtailing or abolishing racial and gender preferences in federal programs (Gottlieb551). Robert Doles closest rival, senator Phil Gramm of Texas, pledged to wipe out minority preference in the ferderal government with a stroke of a pen if elected. This is a policy that needs to be overturned. Gramm said on CBS Face the Nation April 16. Yet none of these politican have a solution more effective of preventing discrimination in jobs and at the same time helps minorites find jobs.

President Clinton, is facing a no-win situation betweeen traditional civil rights constitutenciesand the many angry white males in this country. These men wish to change federal affimative action policies but promise to continue efforts to eliminate discrimination. Yet no plan or proposal that Republican lawmakers, or angry white males have created has help decrease the number of discrimantory act by a company or has helped minorities find jobs than Affirmative Action plans existing today.


These same Republican lawmakers are pushing ahead with efforts to unravel affirmative action, encouraged and empowered by a dramatic Supreme court ruling that cas doubt on federal programs seeking to advance women and minorities. The high court June 12 handed down a 5-4 opinion in a closely watched case, Adarand Construction v. Pena, that challenged a federal Affirmative Action Program. The majority opinion written by Justice Sandra Day OConnor, did not actually strike down any Affirmative Action programs, but it criticized the moral justification for Affirmative Aciton, saying that race conscious programs can amount to unconstitutional reverse discrimination and even harm those they seek to advance. Yet they had not proven any way in which Affirmative Action can harm those they seek to advance.

Republican had been preparing a legislative assault on federal Affirmative Action, either by eliminating programs or with a sweeping measure to outlaw virtually all federal preferecnes on the basis of race or gender. Their targets include scores of congressional and executive branch initiatives that offer special consideration or set-aside for women, minorities and others in federal contracting and hiring. This proves that Republicans wish to eliminate Affirmative Action plan and replace it with nothing. With nothing to help women or minorities their is minimal chances of them competing in the job market.
In defending the program, the Clinton administration stressed that white-owned companies can quaify for bonuses given by Affrimative Action Plans if they prove that they are Socially or enconomically disadvantaged. Some critics of Affirmative Action want to adopt social or economic hardship as a criterion for all Affirmative Action plans. Civi rights groups say they are not opposed to using socioeconomic disadvantages, but want to keep policies specifically aimed at women and minorities too(America Online 3).

Speculation about the future of Affirmative Action must go beyond prognosis of the courts configuration and estimations of its respect for precedents said John Naibandian of University of Kansas (Public Administration Reveiw 43). He was also quoted as saying , Over an 18-year period, adminstrators hve become sensitized to court decisionexpressing the value of social equity. It is unreasonable to anticpate sudden administrative reversal of these impacts now regardlass of Court action (Public Administration Review 43).

Some observers have suggested that the solution to racial inequality in the United States lies largely in a two-pronged attack on discrimination in educationm and employment. If such a solution is possible, certainly the Supreme Court will play a role. But, in a system of separation of powers, it is axiimatic that only so much can be accomplished by even the most activist Courts. That is why all human beings must strive to understand the total implication of what they do. They must help each other see that there is a problem in employing women and minorities.

Saul Solano
Honegger
English 102
October 18, 1995
Affirmative action: Is it a form of Racisim?
Thesis: Although many people believe affirmative action is a form of racism, it is actually used to help minorities find employment in an otherwise racist world.

I. Civil War
A. Laws passed during the civil war
B. Plans used to help laws
II.JFK and Excecutive order
A. Steps taken by JFK
B. JFK Executive order taking effect
III. Other Presidents
A. Harry Truman controbution to Affirmative Action
B. FDR controbution to Affirmative Action
C. D. Eisnehower Executive order
IV. Court Cases
A. Firefighters Local Union No.1784 v. Stotts
B. Stelle v. Louisvill & Nashville Railroad
C. Griggs v. Duke Power Co.

D. McDonnell Douglas Corp. v. Green
E. Hazelwood School District v. United States
V. Those against Affirmative Action
A. Why are white male against Affirmative Aciton Plans
B. Why white male dislike the idea of affirmative action

Kaus, Mickey. The End of Equality New York: Basic,1992.

Urofsky, Melvin. The Conflicts of Rights New York: Scribner 1990.

Verba, Sidney, and Gary R. Orren. Equality in America Massaschuettes Harvard, 1984.

Hugh, Graham The American Judical System New York:Scribner, 1987.

Jost, Kenneth. America Online Internet, 1995
Webb, Janette and Sonia, Liff.Play he white man: the social construction of fairness and competition in equal opportunity. The Sociological Reveiw v.36, Aug. 88 532-51
Perman, Florence. The players and the problems in the Eeo enforcement process: a status report
Pulbic Administration Reveiw v.48, July/Aug. 88, 827-33
Boris Eileen and Honey Michael. Gender, race and the policies of the Labor Department.

Monthly Labor Review v.111, Feb. 88, 26-36.

Nalbandian, John. The U.S. Supreme courts consensus on Affirmative Action. Public Administration Reveiw. v.49, Jan./Feb. 89, 38-45
Tatel, David and Minchber, Elliot. The Supreme Courts 1987 decision on voluntary Affirmative Action. Public Management. v.69, Dec. 87, 3-5
Steel, Brents and Lovrich, Nicholas P. Equality and Efficiency Tradeoffs in Affirmative Action.
The Social Science Journal v.24, Nov. 87, 53-70
Leonard, Jonathan S. What was Affirmative Action. The American Economic Review v.76, May 86, 359-63

Gender issues in lysistrata, a

Human beings are amazing creatures. Our history has shown spectacular and shameful events from day one. Throughout the course of history we have seen both war and peace. More war than peace, but the point still remains. That we, as a human race, have accomplished many wonderful intellectual break-throughs but we have also done very stupid deeds. Its amazing how a creature of such great intelligence could separate, segregate, discriminate, dehumanize, and enslave members of its own human race.
The world as we speak is existing because of gender issues. Going back to days of Adam and Eve. When God asked Adam not to eat from the apple tree, it was Eve, with her feminine lure, who was able to convince Adam to disobey Gods rules and eat the apple. Yet when God came to punish Adam for disobeying the rules, Adam pointed to Eve and blamed her for luring him into the sin of eating the apple. Yet in reality it was the serpent, which was the devil, that lured them into eating the apple. But of course Adam, being male had to blame Eve, the female. Which is typical male behavior to blame the woman, my sister says. In general men don’t take responsibility for their actions. Michealangelo has portrayed all this on the Sistienth Chapel. He has painted a picture that is portraying God punishing Adam for eating the apple. In this painting Adam loses his masculine image by pointing to Eve and blaming her for the problems that were caused by eating the apple.
Men threw out history have always been perceived as strong, powerful, heroic beings. Men are depicted as fighters, providers, and of course first class citizens. While woman on the other hand have always been perceived as weak, fainty, delicate homemakers, and unintelligent. Their main purpose in life is to cater for the men, and take care of the house and kids. And of course they were perceived as second class citizens.

The focus of this paper is to analyze the gender issues and differences that existed in all three plays. I would like to relate and compare these issues to our past as humans and to our modern day present.
We see a wide array of controversial gender issues arise in Lysistrata. This play starts off by showing the main character as a strong independent woman. The beginning of the play focuses on Lysistrata resentment and anger toward the woman of the town. She sees her own gender as weak and ignorant, and is appalled to be a woman at the beginning of the play. But Lysistrata proves us otherwise. She organizes and unites the woman of the neighboring town. In a master plan to end the Peloponnesian war.
The plan was complete abstinence, and it was affective because of the unity of the women. This abstinence gave the women the upper hand and the power to demand peace. The men could no longer come home from battle have sex and then leave. The women had the control, which for some reason seems very farfetched. The play its self brings out conflicts that our society today would think of as old fashion.
First off, the image of the male being a fighter, and being powerful is perceived when the men are at war. They left the women at home to take care of the house and kids. Today in countries like the U.S., women also go to war and fight side by side with men. But in Lysistrata, the women stayed behind because they were thought of to be not as powerful, and that they were the homemakers. In reality, it turned out that the women were the most powerful. The women used the most powerful muscle in the human body, the mind. The women united together and executed their plan of abstinence equals peace.
While executing their plan the females showed signs of true power. This power was only accomplished because of there unity. They occupied the Acropolis, and in doing so they took control of Athens’ financial reserves. This play shows true signs of women overcoming their gender roles, which is still unheard of in some cultures today.
The men however did not give up easily. They were extremely angry, which understandable. A man goes to battle and risks his life, but when he gets home he can’t even get a little love. This could make almost every man crazy. So the men threatened to attack the Acropolis, but in the end the women won. The power of women is vastly great, but this play shows that they need unity to execute this power.

What I found to be interesting is that at the beginning of the play the women were considered second class citizens. By the end, they had proven themselves as equals. They proved to be more powerful than the men are. They knew that their husbands were dying for an unreasonable war, and they thought of a peaceful plan to end it. And towards the end they were not considered as weak. But rather as powerful, and respectable. It is interesting how this comedy written so long ago still bring up issues that apply to our society today. The most powerful gender issue that was broken in this play, was the “deviance” of the women. The women broke their standard role of their society, and insisted change. They broke away with all their weak and inferior labels. They proved themselves not to be fainty, and inferior, but as equally superior to the men. The women no longer became what their society wanted them to be. They became individual citizens of the human race. And were not thought of as just “women”, but rather “WOMEN!”, said with respect.

Moving along in time we come across a beautiful play done by Shakespeare, As You Like It (AYLI). AYLI is a romantic comedy. Within this comedy we see many gender issues arise. The play starts out with the typical stereotype. The women are considered weak, fainty Ect… While the men are portrayed as strong and bold. This is a very common stereotype, which exists heavily today. Some form of this stereotype can be seen in almost any play, or movie for that matter. This play starts off by portraying the two main female characters of the play, Rosalind and Celia, as the typical stereotype. These girls seem very delicate, and fainty. They are considered royalty and that could be the reason they are portrayed as fainty, or delicate. You get the image of the girls being soft and feathery.
But all this changes very suddenly. This change occurred because Celia was exiled from the country. And since the two girls shared such a strong loving bond they decided they could not live apart. So the girls planed to run away together. But of course women cannot travel alone. How can a woman make it threw the wilderness by herself? Everyone knows women are not as smart as men are, they are just delicate “baby-poppers”. And that seemed to be the basic mentality of people back in the sixteenth-century.
So now all they need is a man on their journey. A man basically just for protection. But the two girls decide to dress up Rosalind in drag for their trip. This issue of crossdressing brings out a whole new perspective of the play. The issue of crossdressing is a prominent feature in the plot of AYLI. The reason the issue of crossdressing has such influence on the plot is because most of Orlando’s courtship of Rosalind takes place while Rosalind is disguised as a man, calling herself “Ganymede.” Rosalind-as-Ganymede persuades Orlando to pretend that Ganymede is his beloved “Rosalind.” In her male disguise, Rosalind takes over roles within the fiction of the play that, in its time, were exclusively male, such as the role of choosing her own mate and directing his courtship of her. These sorts of roles would conventionally belong to her father, Duke senior.
Rosalind even takes over the play’s epilogue, its formal farewell to the audience, commenting on how unusual it is for the female lead to do so. But, of course, as “she” reveals in her epilogue, “she”, the actor playing Rosalind on the sixteenth-century English stage, is male, as were all the actors who played female roles on the stage of Shakespeare’s time. Just like in the times of Aristophanes.
We come across an interesting problem with gender in this play. And that is the complications of acting the roles of gender, where a boy plays a girl playing a boy pretending to be a girl. In today’s society for a crew to go to this extent just seems silly.
Our Town written by Thornton Wilder is an exceptional play. This play is the winner of the Pulitzer Prize and considered an American masterpiece. The time setting, and location in this play is a key aspect of the gender issues that arise.
The women are very obviously perceived as second class citizens. They seem to be almost “slave-like.” The women are stuck in Grover’s Corner, unless the men want to leave. This perspective of second class citizen can be easily seen when Mrs. Gibbs wants to take a vacation to Paris. She desperately wants to go, but she cannot simply go to her husband and say “I would like to go to Paris dear.” She has the money, but it is up to Mr. Gibbs to take the vacation. Mr. Gibbs would have to be the person to come up with the idea and say “you know what a vacation sounds good, got any ideas honey”, and then Mrs. Gibbs would have to say “well Paris sounds good.” And if Mr. Gibbs would not want to go, they simply wouldn’t. And that was the case, Mr. and Mrs. Gibbs never made it to Paris. This can be related to AYLI, in the sense that women don’t travel alone. This is just an example how women were perceived.

The men in this play seem to be the “all mighty knowledgeable”, while the women on the other hand are pictured to be almost stupid. Men had the go in almost every conversation. Women were just these unintelligent creatures made to take care of the home while the men provide. Very old fashion mentality threw out this play. You get a sense of suffocation and entrapment that is directed on to the women. The woman couldn’t just pack there stuff and leave the town, with out ridicule and hardship. They seemed to be “stuck”, in the sense that is very hard to leave a small town.
The role of the women was to get married, stay home and take care of the kids, while the man provides and puts food on the table. This view is still somewhat shared with our society today.

In conclusion it would be safe to say that all three plays relate gender issues to their time set. We can see many similarities within all three of these plays, and we can also see similarities that arise with our culture today. Even though today women are not treated as bad as they were. It is sad to say that even in the year 2000 women don’t have equal rights and don’t get equal treatment. Women still make .70 cents to the dollar as men. Their role is still to be the homemaker. And they hold such a small percentage of any policy making position. To think of all the lost talent and all the advances that could have been made to help our society is truly a sad and inhuman thought, that can get any one angry with our history. If one was to really think about it, the human race has not made much progress with the treatment of women.

Why Marc Antony is a Round Character

William Shakespeare wonderfully develops the character Marc Antony in his play Julius Caesar to be a round character. Round characters meaning a character that has many traits and isnt predictable. Antony, who seems to not have many different traits at the beginning of Julius Caesar, really starts showing his real self after Caesars death. That also shows that he is unpredictable.

Antonys monologues and soliloquies really help to show readers Antony as a round character. A few traits these soliloquies and monologues show are that he is manipulative and smart, yet also caring and loving. Other traits Antony shows include agreeable, but capable of being in charge; athletic; popular; and able to give recognition where it is deserved. Like most people, Antony has both bad and good traits, and his speeches reflect that.

The manipulative nature of Antony proves true two times. The first time is when Antony is speaking at Caesars funeral. Antony is manipulating the crowd by using pauses and by talking Brutus up. This is what Antony says in that instance, Yet Brutus says he was ambitious; and Brutus is an honorable man. (Act III, scene ii, lines 94-95) Antony is saying maybe Brutus is right because he says Caesar was ambitious, and Brutus is, in fact, a very honorable man. In another instance he says, Have patience, gentle friends, I must not read it, speaking of Caesars will. (Act III, scene ii, line 141) Antony is trying to get the people excited about the will, so they will tell him to read it by acting like he shouldnt read it. The second time Antony shows that he is manipulative when he wants to change Caesars will. At that time Antony proves himself by saying, But, Lepidus, go you to Caesars house; Fetch the will hither, and we shall determine how to cut off some charge in legacies. (Act IV, scene I, lines 7-9) Antony is telling Lepidus to go get the will so they can change it. Antonys ability to be manipulative is well proven in these instances.

The loving side of Antony that allows him to give recognition where it is deserved is shown a few times. One time comes close after Caesars death. Antony says, Thou art the ruins of the noblest man that ever lived in the tide of the times, and it shows his love for Caesar by saying that the noblest man he ever knew was now dead. (Act III, scene I, lines 256-257) Another time, when his ability to give credit where credit is due shows up at the very end of the play after Brutuss death when Antony says, This was the noblest Roman of them all, and he is saying that Brutus is the most noble man he had ever met or heard about. (Act V, scene v, line 68) Antony does have a loving side despite some of the bad things he does over the course of the play Julius Caesar.
Marcus Antonius is proven to have many character traits. All of his character traits allow him to be unpredictable. Even the two traits manipulating and loving allow Antony to be unpredictable, despite the fact he has many more traits. Antony has many character traits and is unpredictable, so Shakespeare did in fact do a great job establishing him as a round character with Antonys monologues, soliloquies, and even his dialogue.