Catcher In The Rye- Movie Proposal

Movie Proposal:
The Catcher in the Rye

Vina Ku
Iverson/Racey
Per. 7, 8
To the Producer:
The Catcher in the Rye, a contemporary novel by J.D. Salinger, is a thought-provoking, fascinating look at societys values and issues in the 1950s. This book would make an excellent transition to film because it is full of both action and implication. It focuses on a four-day period of time in the life of a sixteen-year-old cynic with emotional problems. The book follows Holden Caulfield as he struggles with others and himself to find his way through the phoniness and disillusionment involved in his adolescent life. These struggles essentially make up the novel, occurring during a long flashback of the four days as he relates them to a psychoanalyst. It would make a brilliant movie because it is written with so much detail, so many pictures that would be beautifully expressed through visual representation. Not only that, but the novel possesses substance, providing a subjective view of the superficiality of modern life, which is represented by the world Salinger creates around Holden.


Summary:
The movie would be named after the novel it is based on, and would attempt to follow the exact storyline. Pencey Prep, the private school that Holden attended would not have to be in Pennsylvania, but somewhere resembling the area. Most of the city incidents would actually be filmed in New York City. Of course, certain streets would have to be singled out, and the costuming and cars, etc., would have to resemble1950s New York in order to fit the time period.

The movie would be narrated by Holden, who would stop talking at times to allow focus on the flashbacks taking place in what would then seem like present tense. Much of the narration does not need to be put into dialogue because Holden spends a great deal of time in his descriptions of what is going on around him. This aspect of the book would have to be carried out carefully and precisely by actors with the right kind of talent (see Characters/Acting) in order to make the movie successful in capturing Salingers exact tones and concepts.
Note: the main objective of the movie is to present The Catcher in the Rye in visual format. This means to follow as closely as possible to the original plot, dialogue, settings, etc. as written in the book unless truly impossible. The movie should reflect the intentions of J.D. Salinger and also incorporate the themes expressed in the novel (i.e., hypocrisies and phonies in everyday life, the search for a place to belong, isolation and wearing masks). If possible, the author should be contacted for opinions and criticism throughout the filming of the movie.

The beginning of the movie could or could not be modified from the beginning of the book; either way would still appropriately capture the atmosphere of the psychoanalyst and Holden. One way to begin is by actually showing Holden lying in a psychoanalysts office, where he begins his narration. The camera would then fade into Pencey Prep, with Holden standing atop Thomsen Hill. Another approach could just be to begin directly with the scene on the hill, with Holden voicing over the picture.
Of course, not every scene could have narration. Otherwise the movie would be unrealistic. Some of the thoughts that run through Holdens head would have to become dialogue, for example, Holden would mumble Phony under his breath while talking to certain characters.


Locations:
All of the scenes occurring at Pencey would be filmed at another prep school resembling the descriptions given by Holden throughout the book. (…Way the hell up on top of Thomsen Hill, right next to this crazy cannon that was in the Revolutionary War…You could see the whole football field from there…-The Catcher in the Rye, p.2) One of the more grotesque scenes would be the suicide of James Castle. This is a critical scene because Holden tells the reader about it after the incident in Mr.Antolinis apartment, depicting Holdens sudden unwillingness to judge him. It can be filmed well using stuntmen and technology to recreate the jump from the window and the death. The moment Mr.Antolini approaches the body afterwards should be caught on camera to emphasize his character.

The scenes in Mr.Antolinis apartment, along with the scenes in the hotel room with the prostitute and the bars in the other hotels, should be shot in the appropriate hotels in New York City. A seedy, run-down hotel in a bad neighborhood named something like E-Z Rest Hotel would be appropriate as a substitute for the Edmont Hotel. This is where Holden stayed and had the prostitute incident in, along with the experiences at the bar downstairs. A nice, upscale hotel like the Ritz would be appropriate for the Biltmore Hotel, and the meeting place for Holden and Sally Hayes. Other settings might need a fake set because finding actual places resembling the time period would be hard to do, but should be done if at all possible to make the movie as good as it can be. Some locations would be the theater Holden and Sally go to, the Caulfields apartment, etc. Certain settings that are preexisting in New York city, such as Radio City Music Hall, the museums, Grand Central Station and Central Park should be used as they are, unless modifications would be necessary to make the areas look like they did in the 1950s.

The rest home, whether used in both the beginning and end or just in the end, would be in an unspecific location, but obviously somewhere in California. The room Holden is in with the psychoanalyst would be sunny, but not too bright, and the psychoanalyst would never actually be seen. All that is visible is Holden, lying on a couch, talking.

The majority of the book takes place in New York City, as before mentioned. The city must be filmed carefully, because it is not only a backdrop for the book, but has an essential purpose. The nameless people of the city that Holden observes throughout the book are actually symbolic for the citys character itself. Holden sees and has contact with various unnamed characters throughout the city, like the unusual cab drivers, and the little boy humming Burns song that Holden misheard, If a body catch a body coming through the rye. These people all represent the different aspects of the City, and of urbanization during the beginning of the Atomic Age.


Characters/Acting:
Because of the numerous characters Holden encounters, not every single character mentioned will be actually played by an actor, or even seen in the film, but the majority will be. Most of the small roles are vital however, such as the characters mentioned above. All of the shortly mentioned characters are placed into Holdens world for a reason, so they must be portrayed. The small characters give insight to Holdens personality, as well as the personality of the character played by the urban world. Such interactions between them, like the one between Horowitz, the second cab driver, and Holden, about the ducks in Central Park are used as insight to Holdens personality. Holden asks the cabby about something that would seem trivial to others, and the cabby responds in a dramatic, rude manner, almost comedic, and stereotypical of urban dwellers (Whos ignoring it? Nobodys ignoring it!-p.82). The personality displayed by Horowitz is another indication that the novel is not only about Holden and his adventures, but also of the world he lives in.

Characters must be played by actors with a certain similarity to the character itself, whether it is by their physical appearance, the way they speak or otherwise. Holden is a 16 year-old boy, and so he should be played by a boy who looks no older than that. The boy should be rather thin, but with muscles, and have a face with character. Holden is to be played with intensity, anger, sadness, but also have a loving nature, all of which he displays throughout the novel, whether obviously or inconspicuously. The novel accurately describes most of the other characters, because of Holdens observant nature. All details given by Holden should be carried out accordingly.

The movie would be best directed by Stephen Spielberg, because of his ability to keep movies true to nature, and still produce a compelling story. This would be an excellent project for him because the objective of the film is to do exactly what Spielberg did with movies such as Schindlers List and Saving Private Ryan: to take a story, fiction or non-, and portray it as a emotionally moving picture, while keeping it true to the original vision.


The movie spin-off of The Catcher in the Rye should accurately represent the novel written by J.D. Salinger. The budget for the film should be whatever is deemed necessary by the director to make the movie as realistic and well done as possible. The budget should not be a consideration because it would hinder the quality of the film and therefore not allow it to live up to the wonderful the novel could have as a film. If carried out well, this film would be a huge success.
Words
/ Pages : 1,520 / 24

Systems

Computer technology: That’s entertainment, 2000
CNN NewsStand’s James Hattori finds out what entertainment might look like in the year 2010
Web posted at: 4:00 p.m. EST (2100 GMT)
(CNN) — As we reach the year 2000 and the next phase of the Information Age, it’s easy to forget that just 10 years ago, the Information Age was stuck on its launching pad.
The Internet was unknown to nearly everyone except university researchers; TV was still patting itself on the back over cable success; films were searching for the next big thing; music was sold at record stores.
Now, television and computers are colliding and millions of channels are on the horizon; films are bigger, clearer and cheaper to make; and music, more than any other industry, is using the Internet to market itself
HDTV will soon be rolling into homes, delivering a wider screen and digital picture
Television is on the brink of major changes that may forever alter the way we live.
It should all happen with the inevitable switch from analog to digital technology. Right now, most homes are equipped with analog, the design of which has remained largely unchanged since the invention of television. The new kid on the block is HD, or high-definition television, with more than three times the resolution of a standard analog set.
Unfortunately, you can’t see HDTV’s higher quality on regular TV. And for now, HDTV does come with high price tags and scarce programming. But there’s little doubt that television signals are going digital.
“I think the world of television and entertainment is poised for explosion, and that explosion comes about because television becomes digital,” says Andy Lippman, associate director of Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s (MIT) Media Lab. It’s one of the premiere technology think tanks in the world.
“When television becomes digital, it becomes a lot more like the Internet, and that means that instead of a hundred or 500 or 1,000 channels, you have to think of television in terms of 243 million channels and accessing channels from all around the world.”
With a laser-pointer-like device, users can click on images on a interactive TV to purchase clothing and objects used by the actors on screen
That new type of TV becomes interactive, too. For instance, you should be able to watch a favorite sitcom, and shop at the same time. This, through innovations like “hypersoap.”
With underwriting by the JCPenney company, MIT professor Michael Bove along with a team of MIT students created the idea. Using a clicker like a remote control, “hypersoap” viewers can shop by highlighting any clothing or objects they see on the screen, allowing viewers of to buy the outfits worn by their favorite actors — if not quite the shirts off their “Friends'” backs.
And shopping is just one possibility. Interactive TV is also expected to allow viewers to gather additional relevant information on programs. For example, if you’re watching a cooking program featuring chicken, you’ll be able to click one part of the screen and get the recipe. If you’re watching a newscast on a Balkan uprising, you can click the remote and learn the history of the conflict, along with latest headlines and video.
Your favorite TV show may soon follow you… from your living room, to your car radio, to your office computer
There are also ideas in the works that can keep us from missing TV, even without using the VCR.
“It’s always annoying when one is watching a television program,” says Bove, “and the telephone rings or one has to get into the car and go drive to work. And it would be possible, using almost the infrastructure we have right now, to make a television program that when I’m watching, if I go out in the car, maybe it follows me by means of my pager and then my car, and when I get to work, it follows me up the steps and on to the screen of my PC. In fact, it would be very nice to be able to follow your program that way.”
And save that VCR. It’ll be like the phonograph one day. Your grandkids will laugh at it as they flip on their DVD players — if DVD players aren’t outdated by then.
George Lucas helped usher in the digital projection film with “Star Wars, Episode 1: The Phantom Menace”
Movie makers are riding the digital wave, too. George Lucas says he plans to lead the charge of high-budget filmmaking into digital land, shooting the next “Star Wars” installment digitally on video, not film. As a way of spurring the development of digital projectors, he had a month-long showing of a special digital version of 1999’s “Star Wars, Episode I: The Phantom Menace.”
Along with better quality, films are getting bigger, too. IMAX and its grand-scale films that make the viewer feel a part of the action could foreshadow a day when moviegoers enjoy a truly virtual experience.
And filmmakers are relying more on not just digital film, but also digital animation to fill their screens. “Titanic” and “The Phantom Menace” are two recent blockbusters that implemented this with tremendous results. Although Jar-Jar Binks, in all his digital green glory, wasn’t the most popular character, there’s talk that one day many films will include digital actors, presumably because they won’t ask for $20 million per picture.
“Edna McCoy’s Festival” was an all-digitally produced film that was shown at the 1999 Austin Film Festival
Low-budget filmmakers are feeling the effects of all this technology, too. Digital tapes are much cheaper than traditional film stock, but yield better quality and can be edited on a home computer. It’s an independent filmmaker’s dream come true. At the 1999 Austin Film Festival, in fact, a group of low-budget auteurs shot a short film using digital tapes in the span of a week on a $200 budget.
Perhaps even more alluring for independent filmmakers is the idea that they’ll always have a place to screen their films, thanks to the Internet. Some say they foresee a day when filmmakers will simply e-mail their work to theaters with digital projectors, at least for a time probably throwing the economy of film distribution into disarray.
Music, of course, has enjoyed the most change so far in these digital times. MP3, the technology that allows Web surfers to download CD-quality music, has been written up in most major publications and has caused old-guard record companies to at once curse and embrace the technology.
MP3 audio will help change the way we buy and listen to music
But new musicians, like young filmmakers, see the digital technology as a way to sidestep traditional avenues to success and use the Internet to distribute their art.
The future of music content should be interesting to monitor, too. The last decade of the century has seen a broad mix of styles flooding radio stations, including early-century jazz and swing, Latin pop, folk, rap, folk-rap, hip-hop, dance, Celtic, new world music, and that old-fashioned, guitar-driven rock ‘n’ roll.
It seems music artists are continually searching for new ways to communicate, so perhaps the 2000s will witness the invention of a new instrument — like the origination of the electric guitar in the mid-1900s — that will sail us to new sound horizons.
Another force that can no longer be ignored is the electronic $6.3 million gaming industry. It keeps millions of Americans, mostly teens, entertained. Eye-popping graphics and battling heroes have pushed sales of electronic games past what’s spent by moviegoers every year.
“Ultima” has evolved as video game technology has been improved
And what will games you play in 10 years be like?
“The interaction you will have will be much more like interacting with real people versus what it is right now,” says Richard Garriot, who created the highly popular “Ultima” adventure games. “You’re going to see some very compelling experiences that are presented in ways which are, you know, well beyond today’s movies and television.”
Or course, all this is merely educated speculation, and it’s likely that many predictions will miss their mark. But it’s safe to say the Internet and its technologies should have vast effects on all that’s entertainment.
“We will see a billion users of the Internet before the end of the year 2000,” says Nicholas Negroponte, founder and director of MIT’s Media Lab. “That is basically 20 percent of the planet.
“And what’s really frightening, or interesting, depending on your perspective, is that the change from now will even be faster and bigger than we’re expecting.”
The only problem with MP3, however, is that it is a “lossy” compression scheme — that is, one that must throw out musical data from the high and low ends of our hearing in order to achieve its small size. When you expand those files to put on an audio CD, they will not sound as good as the original tracks, because the information just isn’t there.
Enter SHN, a file format gaining popularity with fans of live music.
SHN (or shortened) files only offer about 2:1 compression (unlike the 10:1 ratio common with MP3), but SHN files are lossless — in every way the same as the source files from which they were made. Of course, with less compression, the files are also much larger — a full shortened disc can take up about 400MB — so they’re not exactly quick downloads. But with high-speed DSL and cable modems at home (and those blessed high-speed lines we’ve got at work), waiting several hours for a download while you sleep is much quicker — and often more reliable — than setting up and completing a CD trade by mail.
It’s also a great way for a single source (or “seed”) to get out to hundreds of people in a hurry. Often, a show will be transferred from DAT and encoding in SHN format just days after taking place — perfect for us music junkies who can’t wait to hear Phish’s *http://www.phish.com/* latest version of “Chalkdust Torture” or “You Enjoy Myself.” As any music collector knows, you can never have too much of the same thing.
The software you’ll need to take advantage of this great-sounding technology is called Shorten for Macintosh, which can expand SHN files to either AIFF or WAV formats, but only compresses WAV files. The free download is still in an early stage of development, but is very stable–not to mention that it’s currently the only choice for Mac users when it comes to SHN. Remember, however, that you can’t play an SHN file like you would an MP3 — it must be expanded for listening or recording onto a CD.
Bibliography:

Happiness

Happiness
Happiness: In one word, this concept exemplifies the American dream.

People go to any means by which to obtain the many varied materials and issues
that induce pleasures in each individual, and intrinsically, this emotion
remains the ultimate goal, John Stuart Mill, a nineteenth century philosopher,
correctly advocated the pursuit of happiness, and maintained the concept that
above all other values, pleasure existed as the final destination, Mill’s
hedonistic views correctly and rationally identified a natural human tendency,
and his Utilitarian arguments strongly support the theory that above all else,
happiness is the most important dream to be fulfilled. Upon researching for
this paper, I came across a counter argument, which was based on metaphysics.

Immanuel Kant, in Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, defends his strong
beliefs in the issue of a good will, and surfaces as MM’s chief opponent on the
topic of metaphysics, The issue diminishes to a clash between emotions and
pleasures ve rses rationality and logic. Yet, what use is logic when the good
agent is miserable? Mill’s stance within Utilitarianism exists as the more
favorable of the two beliefs, for happiness exist as the one intrinsically
favorable element, not an emotionless mind.


The main defender of the Utilitarian system exists within the Greatest
happiness Principle. Mill lived as a chief advocate of this concept, which
supports the idea that a decision is morally correct as long as it increases and
encourages pleasures and happiness. Kant, however, in his endless quest to
remain separate from emotions and thrive only on logic, would argue that
autonomy should be placed above happiness in a list of intrinsic values. A good
will, however, does not comfort an individual in any way if happiness does not
accompany this asset, Consider this example of a seemingly happily married
couple. The wife in this duo is madly in love with her husband fiercely loyal,
and completely happy with her marriage and children. The husband, however, as
wrongfully strayed, and had a brief, but damaging affair behind his wife’s back.

Kant would argue that autonomy reigns over pleasure, and the woman should
therefore want to be informed of her husband’s adultery, Mill would greatly
disagree. By revealing the secret of the past affair, the woman’s happy world
would be instantly shattered. Her pride would diminish, her stability would
fall apart, and the children especially would be forced to view a nasty side of
their beloved father. In this case, individual control is greatly overshadowed
by the need for happiness. The husband is no longer acting unfaithful and the
family can easily continue to live in a happy realm, If the secret were to
become uncovered, all members of this circumstance unavoidably would become
terribly disappointed, Under the Greatest Happiness Principle, the wife should
not be informed. Since happiness truly lives as the ultimate in human desires,
sparing such immense amounts of pain truly is the logical choice, Mill’s
argument prevails, and all those involved remain happy. Through this example,
one can easily see that although autonomy is often a favorable feature, it does
not overshadow the importance of happiness.


One of the main arguments against Utilitarianism exist in the lack of
apparent fairness. An advocate of the Kantian logic principle would argue that
Mill’s belief system does not allow for equal treatment, When considering what
is best for an entire society, however, it is necessary for certain individuals
to endure suffering. The good of society remains the ultimate goal, and
unfortunate pain is therefore inevitable, If young children are being killed in
a certain community, the obvious good for this society is discovering and
punishing the murderer. Especially when children are involved, people
automatically demand prompt justice. The officials of this area have searched
immensely for the accused, yet no leads have surfaced, and the community
suddenly erupts with anger, they demand that someone be punished, As a
Utilitarian, the police chief sees a window of opportunity. A drug dealer has
recently been brought in on yet another drug selling offense, and the chief
decides to coerce the invalu able member of society into confessing the crime at
hand, By doing so, the community instantly reunites in support and a dangerous
and deadly revolt is avoided, and a menace to society is right back where he
would have been regardless of his confession: behind bars, Kant, however, would
argue that logically, the chase for the true offender should continue. He would
shun the emotional decision to make the whole society happy by ignoring the
rational decisions. But since the community obviously chooses happiness over
logic, Kant’s arguments are irrelevant. In addition, Kant believes in a
decision making process completely separate from the natural human emotions,
Such a demand is possible only for a character such as Star Trek’s Dr. Spock,
for human emotions are as much a part of every day life as the decision making
process itself. Logically speaking, therefore, Mill’s Utilitarianism arguments
maintain the largest dose of validity.


Other opponents to the philosophical viewpoint of Utilitarianism state
that followers of this belief system often promote an ignorant lifestyle, They
maintain that advocates of the Greatest Happiness Principle believe in the
theory that “ignorance is bliss,” Again, such reasoning is quite faulty.

Displaying the erroneousness of this statement can be done by examining the
issue of AIDS, An opponent of Utilitarianism would say an Infected HIV victim
would not want to be aware of his disorder, Such a belief is extremely incorrect.

Mill and other Utilitarian are strong advocates of education, for with
intelligence, greater levels of achievement and happiness can be obtained. A
member of this belief system would rightly argue that being aware of the
disorder could increase long-term happiness, for treatments and support from
friends and family could greatly aid the victim’s fight against his or her
alhnents, Mills therefore strongly support education systems and believe in
making society as a whole as happy as possible. In the case of the AIDS victim,
a Utilitarian would also support the notification of the disorder to the victim
in order to spare others of contracting the virus, The happiness of the majority
would not be increased by an unknowing HIV carrier spreading the disease to
other defenseless individuals, Utilitarianism clearly is not a ignorant way to
live, and the Kantian philosophy of ignoring the irrational system of emotions
cannot refute this standard.


Without happiness, the other opportunities and necessities lose nearly
all levels of importance. A true Utilitarian supports only those concepts that
promote the highest levels of pleasures, and as Mill states, encourages only
those actions that promote real happiness, From a Kantian viewpoint, rationality
and the possession of a good will remains the most important element, but even
someone with the truest and most logical of intentions can easily exist in a
realm of pure depression. The one link that exists between these opposite
belief systems is the concept that, all decisions should be made outside of
one’s personality. The key is that Kant said this decisions should be made
without any regard for human emotions, A request of this magnitude is a part of
a utopian society only, for ignoring one’s emotions is an illogical assumption
in itself, If your child and wife are both dying, deciding which one to save
cannot be made without some emotional influence, Utilitarianism allows for the
emotional side of life but requests only that the Greatest Happiness Principle
be strictly followed. Any truly decent human being naturally follows such a
request every day, Decisions are made based on the greatest level of happiness,
That way, the largest majority of people benefit, and the greatest amount of
happiness is achieved. Yet as Kant believed, a more morally correct decision
lies at the heart of every dilemma.


How does one decide who is morally more correct to save in an instance
where two cherished loved ones are passing away, and only one individual may be
saved? And even more importantly, how does one do so without regard emotions?
I personally feel that living strictly by the doctrine of Kantian philosophy is
completely impossible. Being a Utilitarian and hedonist, such as Mill, makes
more sense to me.

Animal Testing: Testing….1….2…3

Tatum Szymczak
Eng. 105
It is a dark stormy night when suddenly the phone rings. I casually answer the
telephone. It is my older sister informing me that our mother is in the
hospital. She is going to need an emergency brain transplant. It takes me just
a moment to drop everything I am doing and rush to the hospital. When I arrive
I see my father and sister in the waiting room casually enjoying their
conversation. I am amazed they could have such high spirits at such a time. As
I begin to confront them on this, they inform me that this is merely a routine
brain transplant. They reinforce that very few die from the actual transplant.

I become immediately relieved as a huge burden has been lifted off my shoulders.

Animal testing is an issue in today’s society that, whether anyone realizes it,
does affect each of us. Such as transplants, vaccines, and medicine. Nearly
each and every one of us today have received vaccine shots. We have all used
medications. We have all heard of transplant technology. This above example I
have used is farfetched. Brain transplants are not an everyday occurrence.

They are not yet, at least. However, kidney and heart transplants are beginning
to become a more and more common every day. Who knows what is possible with the
proper research. Today there are a great deal of people who oppose animal
testing in laboratory research. This is limiting our medical capabilities .

Could we be holding ourselves back from medical breakthroughs such as a cure for
cancer or AIDS?Animal testing is already controlled to a great extent.Many
cats and dogs are killed annually by shelters and pounds. Animal testing is not
as cruel as it is portrayed and is an essential to reaching medical
breakthroughs.


Special controls on laboratory animals have been in place since 1876. These
have been revised in 1986. These laws are now more commonly known as the
revised Animals Act of 1986. This law allows for scientist to perform testing
while also safe guarding the animals. Prior to any testing a cost benefit
analysis must be applied.In this analysis they review the potential research
benefits with the potential for animal suffering. All registered facilities are
also required to establish an Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) that reviews
and approves procedures involving animals before they take place. This
organization also inspects facilities semiannually for compliance with the AWA.

At least one member of the committee must be a veterinarian. At least one
member must be a “public” member, not affiliated with the institution, who
represents the general community interest in the care and treatment of the
animals.Research facilities must undergo many regulation to ensure animal
safety. These regulations are being met on a monthly basis. (#2)
There are approximately 56-100 million cats and 54 million dogs in the United
States. It is estimated that 2,000 cats and 3,500 dogs are born every hour.

There are an estimated 15 million dogs and cats that are put to death in pounds
and shelters each year. These cats and dogs are put to their death for the lone
reason that the pounds and shelters are overcrowded. Approximately 17-22
million animals are used in research laboratory’s each year.That is just
about 5 million more animals put to death in labs than are put to death in
shelters. Maybe these animal rights activist should be protesting the pounds.

Tested animals are at least being put to death for a reasonable purpose.A
purpose which serves animals and humans both better than making room for the
others. The replacing animals will eventually end up on the other side of the
fence anyway. It Seems like an endless circle of death. Some of the lab cats
and dogs are from pounds and shelters anyway. But this amount is far too few.

Many people who are against animal testing do not realize that only 17-22
million animals are used for lab research annually. But there are approximately
5 billion animals consumed for food annually. Maybe these are the same people
who wear leather and fur coats. (#1) Animal testing has contributed a great
deal to both animals and humans. Albert Sabin, the developer of oral polio
vaccine stated: “Without the use of animals and human beings, it would have
been impossible to acquire the important knowledge needed to prevent much
suffering and premature death not only among humans, but also among animals.”
Experimentation on animals was essential to the development of Dr. Sabin’s oral
polio vaccine, which has virtually eradicated poliomyelitis in the Western
Hemisphere, saved over 500,000 lives, and millions from the debilitating effects
of polio.The transplantation of major organs, and many other surgical
techniques, depends on the ability to join blood vessels. An effective method
was developed by Alexis Carrel using cats and dogs, and for this he was awarded
the Nobel Prize in 1912. Today transplants are far more common than in his day.

Even on the back of one’s drivers license there is a organ donor program portion
to fill out. Which means one can give their organs to a hospital for transplant.

(#2)
Animal testing is a highly debatable issue in today’s society. There are many
people who are against animal testing, but actually have no knowledge of the
subject. I was against animal testing prior to researching this subject.

Hopefully with a bit of knowledge on the subject one can decide for themselves.

Who knows, maybe someday with the help of animals we can eradicate all disease.

Which would give us no further reason to perform these animal testings. We have
held ourselves back for long enough. It is now time to move forward.


Works Cited
1. Thomas, Allen. Animals in America Discover Magazine 9
October 1995
2. Davies, Barbara. Understanding Animal Research in Labs
RDS. Online. AOL. Nov. 1995
Category: Law

Reaching For Dreams – A Ballet

In watching a professional ballet one doesn’t realize how much work is put into making the production come to life. Both the dancers and the choreographers put every ounce of energy and emotion into telling their story. It takes years for a ballerina to train for the labor that goes into becoming professional, however just weeks to learn a full-length ballet. Dancers can sometimes be put through months of sore muscles in order to train. Often ballet dancers are told to loose weight in order to look their part, or are only given a few minutes for break after hours of vigorous training. In the end it is all worth it though. When I checked out Reaching for Dreams: A Ballet from Rehearsal to Opening Night, by Susan Kuklin out of the library I expected to read another boring drawn out diary. Amazingly this book was difficult for me to put down because I became so enthralled by the process of putting on a ballet.
At the beginning of this book the author describes the dancers coming in on a rainy Monday morning to begin warm-ups and rehearsal. This of course is the beginning of their voyage to opening night. The dancers taking part in this production were from the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theatre. The ballet that they plan to perform in seven weeks is called “Speeds.” The choreographer of “Speeds” is a world-renowned woman by the name of Jennifer Mullers. This production contains a cast of eleven dancers and five alternates. “Speeds” is a modern ballet that explains how one moment in time is like no other, and how often things in the world change.
Throughout this book, Kuklin observes the life of a dancer. The typical day of a professional ballerina at the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theatre consists of waking up around seven to be at rehearsal in plenty of time to warm-up. In dance warming up your muscles is the most important device to do before beginning, as it helps you stay clear of any possible injuries. After warming up Jennifer, the choreographer, teaches them the dance and makes sure that every move “flows” with the body of the person dancing it. She claims that “the dancers must be comfortable with the shapes that they dance.” After hours of strenuous practice the dancers receive a five-minute break to cool off and grab a bite to eat. Normally the meal the dancers would eat on break would consist of some fruit and maybe a small sandwich. Jennifer would then announce “Okay breaks over”, and the worn out bodies would slowly, but surely get up and dance their hearts out until about one o’clock when they were allowed to leave. Often times some of the duets would stay after to rehearse more to make sure that everything was flowing together as if they were one. After seven months of doing this everyday one would think that it would become extremely repetitious, however to the leads, opening night is well worth the wait.

Bright red curtains wave as the dancers file in back stage for the first showing of “Speeds” to start. The dancers are costumed in pure white linen to bring you the feeling of innocence. Everyone is extremely apprehensive about the show as the music begins to play and the curtains begin to be drawn open. Jennifer whispers one last good luck to the group as they begin to perform. The show goes on wonderfully and nothing unexpected happens for the next few showings. The last night of the show comes very quickly to the dancers as if it has all been a dream. The show ends and the dancers come out on stage for their last bow. As they look out into the audience and see the crowd cheering they realize what the seven months of stressful practicing was for. For the chance to get the feeling of a lifetime that you will never forget, and to feel that you have achieved something wonderful.

Justin Lieber

I read how to build a person by Justin Lieber. Justin Lieber is a professor at
the University of Houston, whom also writes science fiction. This selection,
which was taken from his novel Beyond Rejection, is fictional and is based in
the future. The story is set in the year 2112 in a Houston hospital. In this
hospital they are brains on one person into the body of another. The story
starts with the hospital giving a class on how they are attempting to transplant
a mind into a human body. The test subjects name was Sally Cudmus, and she has
been frozen in ice for two years. In this story they discuss the difficulties of
implanting a brain into a body. They talk of the problems that would occur if a
mind was implanted into a body that was not its own. They say this is
possible due to the fact that the brain can adapt to major changes around it
with in days. The example they give to show this is possible is one with reverse
goggles. If a person puts on goggles that would make everything appear upside
down the person would be disoriented. After a few day the subjects brain would
adapt to these changes making what the goggles made upside down rights side up.

If the goggles were then taken off everything again would seem upside down,
until the brain once again adapted to this change. In this story it is said that
a mind is like a tape, and the only thing this tape needs is a body similar to
its original to function. I do not agree with this because a brain is not like
any other organ that can be transplanted. A persons brain is dynamic in that
it functions with a particular person, and is one of a kind. No matter how
similar the body types may be, a humans brain and thoughts can not be
transferred to another body. In my opinion a persons brain would not adapted
to such a drastic change as a body switch. In the end the subject wakes up
remembering who he once was. After touching his new body he realizes he is no
longer in his original figure. The subject does not like this because his new
body was much different then his own. He no longer had a penis and his muscular
for he once had was gone. Also a tale like extension had grown from his spinal
cord to his feet. The subject realizes that he will no longer be who he once
was, and is understandably discontent.


Philosophy

SAINT JOHN BOSCO

John Bosco was born on August 16, 1815, to a poor
farming family in Becchi, a small suburb of Turin,
Italy. The child grew to be the Beloved Apostle of
Youth. One of John Boscos earliest recollections
occurred at age two. He remembers his mother telling
him upon his fathers death , You have no father
now. Although he stated that he could not remember
what his father was like , his death must have had a
profound effect on him and perhaps sparked his desire
to help troubled boys, many of whom were fatherless.
I cannot say that I have suffered the loss of a close
family member and can only imagine the effect it could
have on my life.
From the time he was a young child, John Bosco seemed
to have a clear understanding of Gods ways; and what
he didnt understand was often made clear to him by
his mother Mama Margaret. She seemed to know, even
at an early age, that her son was destined to do good
in the name of God. She taught him by example from an
early age and continued to support him and all his
good works throughout his life. She eventually joined
him at he Oratory and became Mother to hundreds of
boys. Her positive influence was felt by all of those
boys. It was almost as if the Blessed Mother worked
through her good example and words of wisdom.
Mama Margaret warned her son to beware of bad boys
you may meet on your journey through life. and asked
him one day, Why do you go with such bad boys?
How many mothers have echoed similar words? How
confident John Bosco was in the power of his good
example when he replied, If I am with them they are
better and do not say bad words. Wouldnt this world
be a better place if we all had such confidence and
faith in the power our own good example.
As a young child, John Bosco had the ability to
attract young boys. He went out of his way to study
traveling show folk to learn acrobatic and sleight
of hand tricks to entertain the boys who would gather
around him. After a performance he would discuss a
sermon from a recent Mass or lead the group in a hymn.

If people started to leave he would tell them that
they couldnt come back and see more tricks unless
they stayed for the sermon. Of course they remained.
At age nine John had a dream that clearly indicated
his intentions of becoming a priest. Mama Margaret
understood this dream and set out to educate her son
and prepare him for First Holy Communion. John had a
special ability to understand and memorize the
priests sermons. He happened to impress one priest
with his retelling of the sermon. This priest
arranged for the beginning of Johns education for the
priesthood. His older stepbrother, Anthony, was
jealous of him and often begrudged him his studies by
insisting that he help work on the farm. Even Anthony
could not keep him from his studies. Priests arranged
for him to be taught while he worked at the farm. In
life we may encounter people who may be jealous of us
and try to stop us from succeeding.

Throughout the course of his religious education John
came in contact with many different people and
different work experiences that helped prepare him for
his future work. Living away from home for the first
time ,he explained the way that he best learned to
deal with his new companions. He divided them into
three classes; the good, the indifferent, and the bad.

He avoided the bad as soon as their character was
discovered; he was courteous to the indifferent and
dealt with them only when necessary. He was
determined to make friends with the good. This is
probably the best advice that John Bosco has to offer
young boys. Although he said that he avoided the
bad, I have a feeling that he did not give up on
them too easily.

John Bosco continued to have a knack for being able to
enter the boys world throughout his life. After
being ordained a priest he continued his boy work.
Little by little over the years his Oratories
multiplied in various towns, cities, and countries.
Many of the boys he taught and sheltered followed in
his footsteps and continued his good works. John
Bosco worked tirelessly for the salvation of all of
his boys. He felt that losing one of his boys would
be like losing a limb, and his heart remains with any
who stray from him. Only when there was danger of
harm coming to the other boys would he agree to expel
anyone.

John Bosco had tremendous faith. He would often
plan for the building of a new Oratory without
securing sufficient funding. It seemed that his
prayers were always answered because the money would
always somehow become available to him at .the very
moment it was needed. His faith in the generosity of
others never failed him.

It is almost impossible to imagine business being
carried out in that manner today, yet it is also
impossible to imagine the religious community existing
without that extreme faith in the generosity and
goodness of others.
John Bosco experienced a difficult, dangerous time
during the period of anticlericalism, around 1849. He
survived numerous assassination attempts from various
undesirable people who opposed the good he was doing
with the boys. These dangerous times did not prevent
brave John Bosco from performing his priestly duties.
He seemed to have a guardian angel in both his mother,
who always seemed to know when he was in danger, and a
mysterious dog named Grigio, who always seemed to
appear when he was needed. Wouldnt it be great if
each of us had our very own Grigio to protect us! It
may be that He already does exist, but we havent
taken notice yet. I have to admit that mothers seem
to have this ability to sense when we are about to get
into trouble whether we know it or not.
Needless to say, John Bosco worked tirelessly for his
boys. A doctor had commented that his body seemed
like that of a much older man. Perhaps that was
because John Bosco never refused a request from anyone
in need. He gave generously of his time, his energy,
and his wisdom. He died on January 31, 1888 and was
canonized in 1934.

While reading this book I could not help but recognize
the similarities between John Boscos Oratories and
our school. There is clearly a feeling of brotherhood
among the students at Don Bosco Prep. I remember how
we all laughed during orientation when we were told
about this feeling of brotherhood, but all of us now
agree that it exists. We are led by the good example
of our teachers and priests, are made to follow a code
of discipline, and are provided academic and religious
instruction. It is an atmosphere that guides us in
choosing between right and wrong and hopefully gives
us confidence and faith in the power of our own good
example. The work of Saint John Bosco continues!
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Pros of the Green Revolution

With the rapid growth of our global population pouring into the next millennium, we will witness an ever-growing hunger rate around the world. That is unless we call for a revolution on the global scale. The Green Revolution which already sprouted in the early part of the century only need to add a bit more momentum and we will see a bright future for the human race, a future without hunger and starvation – hopefully.


It is becoming increasingly difficult for the planet to support its overwhelming population. And since the amount of arable land available is becoming scarce, we must seek ways to dramatically improve crop yields of existing cropland. By implementing new farming techniques provided with the new technological advances in machines we can see abundant harvest in even the poorest third world countries. For example, the Green Revolution has already showed admirable progress in the northern part of India ever since it took start in 1950. By 1997, northern India increased its grain production by 37 percent. This has proven that traditional farming methods are being rendered obsolete. And because by the year 2000, there will be half the land per person in developing countries as there was in 1970, we need to apply ultra-efficient methods to sustain the growing need.
Not only does the Green Revolution enhances food output, it also preserves the environment. Traditional agriculture requires massive forest and grassland removal to obtain land necessary to farm on. Deforestation and overgrazing has caused erosion flooding, and enabled the expansion of deserts. But with drainage systems, leveling, and irrigation provided by the Green Rev, all this terra deforming will unlikely happen again. We can retain clean air and lessen the global warming effect caused by deforestation.


Many people argue that a revamp in agriculture will be way too expensive and unrealistic especially for those poor farmers in third world countries. However many times, they exaggerate the price. In reality, farmers who take the first step in the revolution will most likely succeed and will have more money to invest in further development such as irrigation systems and wells and machineries. And since poverty is caused by low productivity of food which results in over expensive food prices, we can eliminate this problem by raising crop yields.
We don’t have much time and room to speculate on this issue. The turn of the century is approaching quickly and so is overpopulation. What we should be speculating on is how the development process proceeds not should it proceed. The Industrial Revolution altered the world one step ahead. The Green Revolution will take the next.

Affirmative Action

Affirmative Action
Ten percent too much or too little?
Over two hundred years ago the country was founded by a group of white european christian men wanting to make a better home for themselves and their families. They wrote the Declaration of Independence to form the basis for their beliefs that all men are created equal. This was followed by another document, the Constitution. The Constitution set a foundation of expectations for the government and the people. The Constitution has been modified with amendments over the years. Some of these changes included basic rights for classes or groups of people that were not included in the original document. Today these changes have been incorporated into the life style of the American people and are considered as part of everyday life. One group of changes has been in the rights of different groups of people. This includes women’s rights, veteran’s rights, along with minority rights. The government also ensured the rights of people through civil rights acts and executive orders. These civil rights acts addressed discrimination in employment, government grants, loans or contracts and education.
The first executive order addressing equal opportunity in the work place was 10925 signed in March 1961. (1995) Another, Executive Order 11246 dated September 24, 1965 and amended by Executive Order 11375 dated October 13, 1967 put federal requirements in place that mandate employers to add affirmative action programs in business practices to aid hiring and advancement of minorities. This order was to support and help the recognition and treatment of the following categories; race, religion, color, national origin and sex. (Gutierrez) This was to help diversify the work place while assisting the incorporation of differences in society. The order would not allow quotes but directed the use of programs and goals to achieve the desired effects of incorporating more diversity in the work place.

There are other government methods to encourage the fair treatment of people, independent of the previously listed groups. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 has many regulations and rules against discrimination in educational institutions. These rules apply to institutions as an employer, but also to student admissions. These rules state that the “affirmative action programs must be “narrowly tailored” to remedy past discrimination” (Gutierrez)
Diversity and discrimination has been an area of concern and focus for over 50 years, as can be seen by the dates in the previously stated government actions. The officials that are elected represent the people and move toward incorporation of all groups of people in society.

One problem is that when a person or group of people has the perceived notion that discrimination is being used to slow or extinguish their progress in the work place or as in the admission to a college; the judiciary system is used to correct the injustice. This leads to more issues or a conflicting determination in law for the institution to follow. An example of this is a ruling in 1996 by the United States Court of Appeals making use of race for admissions illegal (Axtman). This prompted Texas legislatures to pass the 10 percent rule for college admissions. This rule states a student attending a public school that graduates in the top 10 percent of their class will be admitted to any public university in the state. Then in 1978 the Supreme Court ruled in the reverse manner stating that universities are allowed to use race as one of the criteria for admission.

This battle in the judiciary system has opponents of affirmative action battling to change or remove the top ten rule. The statistics on student admissions and performance are staggering for keeping the rule in effect. 88 percent of top ten students who applied to Austin or Texas A&M were admitted, also 85 percent of those applying at other Texas state colleges were admitted. The complaint of some prospective college attendees is that this enormous enrollment of top ten students leaves only a fraction left for those who do not qualify under the top ten rule and rejections are common. This is unfounded; as over 75 percent of the students graduating in the 10 to 20 percentile of their class went on to enroll at their first choice college. The next statistic to address is the fall of minority enrollment under this plan. Comparing 2002 to the 1996 static’s for Texas’s top college, Texas A&M, the percentage of enrollment fell for blacks by 0.4 percent and Hispanic enrollment fell by 1.5 percent (Axtman). This fall of enrollment was also closely repeated at the University of Texas. This would lead you to believe that this program is a failure. The proponents insist that minority segregated schools guarantee the admittance of those students who qualify under the plan. This does not mean that the students at the schools with high minority populations will choose to go to these top ranked colleges but makes them available as never before. Another topic is the standardized testing scores requirement for college admittance. This enrollment criterion would make some of these students ineligible for the top schools and the top ten rule guarantees the opportunity of acceptance. Also some of the students have applied to other Texas universities and have been accepted under the ten percent rule. This has led to an increase in the total number of Hispanics being accepted at state universities and has shown an increase of over 15% between 1997 and 2001.

Other states as California and Florida also have similar opportunities for students graduating at the top of their high school class. California has a top four percent rule that guarantees acceptance to one of the University of California campuses. Florida applies its 20 percent rule similarly guaranteeing acceptance to one of the state’s institutions.
The success of these top ten students has been documented and finds that the students admitted under the top ten rule and scoring lower on standardized testing are doing as well if not better than those who scored higher on these tests.
This leads us to, why has the enrollment dropped for minorities even though the opportunity has been increased? The answer to this can be found in your pocket or pocket book. The cost of college seems to be the most contributing factor to the decrease in numbers of minorities in the top state schools. The answer to diversity in Texas schools will not be provided by the top ten rule only. The need for increased scholarships and financial aid programs to low income families is the next step. The top ten rule made attending the schools possible but the financial opportunity is missing. There are federal programs and state programs that are available but it would seem that it is well below the needed level.
There is another area that is being investigated to assist in increasing the number of minorities enrolling at the state universities is the early life development of attaining a college education. It has been found that when the younger mind is influenced by positive guidance including attending a college, that an increased number will attain the goal of college life. The development of a child’s mind can be seen as the tool to increase a diverse college enrollment and the cost to tax payer is minimal.
The top ten rule will not solve all of Texas’s diversity conflicts with the sweep of a broom. Some would like to take the broom and sweep it out of site and remove the notion that something has to be done to level the acceptance criteria for the state run schools. Texas and this nation have developed the most brilliant minds and problem solvers in the world. Solving this problem doesn’t seem to be beyond the capabilities of our people. It would take care, understanding, and a shift of attitude in developing the needed changes to making a possible solution. Census data and Texas school data can be used to understand the ratio of populations for economically challenged, race, sex and other categories. A plan to solve the current situation of diversity in these and other colleges should be developed using the data that is available along with the current studies and theories. Attending college should be imprinted on our youth from an early age, encouraged through the middle school years and made a priority to all high school students especially those in economically challenged areas. The top ten rule should not be abolished and replaced by another system that will need time to study and qualify its effectiveness. Use the current system and expand and make it better.
References
Axtman, K. (2003, February 12) Affirmative action, Texas style, stirs criticism. Http:www.csmonitor.com/2003/0212/p03so1-usgn.html
Cahn, S. (1995) Steven Cahn on the history of affirmative action. http: aad.English.uscb.edu/docs/Cahn.html
Gonzales, R. (2004, July 4). The idea that college must be cultivated. Fort Worth Star- Telegram.

Gutierrez-Jones, C. Laws applying to affirmative action in education institutions. http://aad.english.ucsb.edu/docs/Laws.html
Meritz, D. (2004, January 23). Top 10% plan has improved diversity at top Texas colleges. http: www.borderlandnews.com/stories/borderland/20040123-71954.shtml
Tienda, M. (2004, July 18). Focus on higher education upgrades in Texas; get past debate over top 10% law, make plan better. Houston Chronicle.

Tienda, M. & Niu, S. Texas’ 10-perecent plan: the truth behind the numbers. The chronicle review, 100 (20), B10.

Not a chance

Select a paper/assignment which you have written within the last 10 days. The paper must be at least 2 typed pages in length, or 100 words. Only continuous prose can be used for the test. Information contained in charts or graphs should not be included in the test. Quotations are not counted towards the minimum of 100 words.


Select a paper/assignment which you have written within the last 10 days. The paper must be at least 2 typed pages in length, or 100 words. Only continuous prose can be used for the test. Information contained in charts or graphs should not be included in the test. Quotations are not counted towards the minimum of 100 words.


Using whatever standard Word-Processing Program that is available, enter in the text of your paper exactly as you have written it. Avoid the temptation to make any editorial changes to the original paper while you are typing it in. In fact, if possible, it is preferrable to have SOMEONE ELSE type in your paper.


SINGLE SPACE your text and avoid using ANY special formatting commands, i.e., tabs, bolding, underlining, etc. Hyphenated words are considered as one word, so do NOT leave spaces-between the two words. Also, ALL QUOTES, including long quotes which are indented and single spaced in the original text, should be indicated by double (” “) quote marks.


Copy your text into the text box below. Or, if you already have the text in a file on your computer, you need only cut and paste the text into the space below.


Using whatever standard Word-Processing Program that is available, enter in the text of your paper exactly as you have written it. Avoid the temptation to make any editorial changes to the original paper while you are typing it in. In fact, if possible, it is preferrable to have SOMEONE ELSE type in your paper.


SINGLE SPACE your text and avoid using ANY special formatting commands, i.e., tabs, bolding, underlining, etc. Hyphenated words are considered as one word, so do NOT leave spaces-between the two words. Also, ALL QUOTES, including long quotes which are indented and single spaced in the original text, should be indicated by double (” “) quote marks.


Copy your text into the text box below. Or, if you already have the text in a file on your computer, you need only cut and paste the text into the space below.

Words
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